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I. Earth Systems and Resources
Transcript of I. Earth Systems and Resources
Atmosphere=the thin layer of gases that surrounds Earth.
A. Earth Science Concepts
1. Geologic time scale: rock's transformation over time.
C. Global Water resources and use
Freshwater: water that is relatively pure, holding very few dissolved salts.
Saltwater: it is seawater or water found in ocean
D. Soil and Soil dynamics
1. Rock Cycle: the slow process in which rocks and the minerals that make them up are heated, melted, cooled, broken, and reassembled, forming
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
I. Earth Systems and Resources
THE ROCK CYCLE- rocks that go through a process of being heated, melted, cooled broken down, and reassembled.
-Igneous rock- formed when magma cools
-Sedimentary rock- formed particles of rock blown by wind or washed away settle through layers and act as glue, crystallizing and binding sediments
- Metamorphic rock- form by heat or pressure is exerted on rock, and may change the form
2. Plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanism
Plate tectonics- a process that underlies earthquakes and volcanoes and determines the geography of the Earth's surface
Divergent plate boundary- magma that comes from beneath the crust, divides plates and pushes them apart, creating new crust as it cools and spreads.
Transform plate boundary- when two plates meet, they slip and grind along one another- causes earthquakes.
Convergent plate boundary- when plates collide. 1-subduction- when one plate goes below the other. 2- uplift the two plates
Seasons occur because Earth is tilted on its axis by 23.5 degrees
March equinox: equator faves sun directly; neither pole tilts toward sun.
June solstice: Northern hemisphere tilts toward sun and summer begins. Winter begins in the Southern hemisphere
September equinox: Equator faces sun directly; neither pole tilts toward sun.
December solstice: Northern hemisphere tilts away from sun and winter brings. Summer begins on the other side.
The Earth's curvature, polar regions receive on average less solar energy that equatorial regions.
Air absorbs more energy with longer paths, and less with smaller paths.
Convective circulation: a circular current driven by temperature differences. Warm air rises into regions of lower atmospheric
4. Solar intensity and latitude
It consist of 78% nitrogen gas, and 21% oxygen gas. the remaining 1% is argon gas. Now oxygen began to build up, dominated by carbon dioxide, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen
The atmosphere consists of several layers
Troposphere: blankets Earth's surface and provides organism the air they need to live- bottom layer.
Stratosphere: gases experience little vertical mixing, so once they enter they tend to stay a long time
Ozone Layer: concentrated in a portion of the stratosphere-reduces the amount of UV radiation that reaches Earth's surface
Mesopshere: Air pressure is extremely low, and temperature decrease with altitude
Thermopshere: few molecules and far from each other they collide rarely.
3. Weather and Climate
Weather: specific atmospheric conditions over short time periods.
Climate: describes the pattern of atmospheric conditions found across large geographic regions over long periods of time
-Weather is produced by interacting air masses, such as; warm front and cold front, and high-pressure system and low-pressure system.
- Climate patterns result from large-scale circulation systems. Cells like Hadley, Ferrel, and Polar cell determine the type of climate in the area.
4. Atmosphere circulation and the Coriolis Effect
Coriolis effect: the apparent deflection of north-south air currents to a partly east-west direction cause of the Earth's rotation
Locations on the equator spin faster than locations near the poles.
5. Atmosphere-ocean interactions
2. Ocean circulation
3. agricultural, industrial, domestic use
4. surface and groundwater issues
5. global problems
4. Physical, chemical properties
5. Main Soil Types
6. Erosion other soil problems
7. Soil conservation
Ocean circulations: are long-lasting and predictable global patterns of water movement.
El nino: when equtorial winds weaken and allow warm water from the western Pacific to move eastward, preventing cold water from welling up.
La Nina: cold surface waters extend far westward in the equatorial Pacific
Warm surface currents carry heat from equatorial waters north, where they release heat into the atmosphere, the cool and sink into the deep ocean
Clay: consists of particles less than 0.002 mm in diameter
Silt: consists of 0.002-0.05 mm in diameter
Sand: consists of 0.05-2 mm
Loam: a even mixture of the three
five factors: Climate, organisms, topographical relief, parent material, and time
Climate: soil forms faster in warm, wet climates.
Organisms: organisms decompose the material
The most important factor will be to secure legally protected property rights for resource users. Farmers must have the right to own their own land resource.
Deposition: is the arrival of eroded material at s new location.
1. Over cultivating field through poor planning or excessive plowing, disliking, harrowing
2. Overgrazing range lands with more livestock than the land can support
3. Clearing forested areas on steep slopes or with large clear-cut
indicates solid composition and soil fertility
is what determines the "workability"
a measure of the "clumpiness" of soil
Soil pH influences a soil's ability to support plant growth
Soil composition is the percent of minerals particles presented in the soil.
It affects the color of it.
Warm- and cold-water currents interact with planet's climate system and have been used by people to navigate the oceans for centuries.
Domestic uses it at home for drinking, cooking, and cleaning.
Agricultural uses are for irrigating crops and water livestock.
Industrial uses water for their manufactures
People have found it easier to get the water from the surface areas like rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds, diverting water from these sources to farm fields, homes, and cities.
Groundwater is more easily depleted than surface water because most aquifers recharge very slowly. Overpumping of it in coastal areas can cause salt water to intrude into aquifers, making the water undrinkable.
Technological advances have improved our ability to control pollution and mitigate its impacts.
Waters have been polluted badly with waste water, fertilizers, and toxic chemicals.
-Desalination"makes" more water.
-Agricultural demand can be reduced.
-We can lessen residential, municipal, and industrial water use in many ways.
-Various economic approaches to water conservation are being debated