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Irish Rebellion of 1798
Transcript of Irish Rebellion of 1798
Theobald Wolfe Tone
Bagenal Harvey, Cornelius Grogan,
Mathew Keogh, and Anthony Perry
Gen. Lazare Hoche
A young Dublin lawyer, his revolutionary ideas helped develop the Society of United Irishmen, which later transformed into the Rebellion.
The Rebellion developed in Dublin, and it's surrounding counties, after catching word of the development of a society against the Dublin government, in Belfast.
(Dublin held the country government seat, in Dublin Castle)
Counties affected were: Meath, Carlow, Kildare, Wicklow, and most notably, Wexford
"Society of United Irishmen of Belfast" is created by Theobald Wolfe Tone to reform religious and political limitations and conflicts.
War between France and UK
United Irishmen organization is suppressed by the British's control, causing outrage between the Irishmen
Belfast Society radicalizes, and many smaller, separate organizations join the United Irishmen of Belfast
Theobald Wolfe Tone goes to France to rally for French allies
Gen. Larzare Hoche sails with French soldiers to Ireland but storms complicate and stop arrival
Gen. Gerard Lake confiscates private arms of the Irish and suppresses the Rebel newspaper, the "Northern Star"
United Irishmen prepare for a rebellion and government desperately attempts to break the organization
Government arrests radical leaders in the spring but it only fuels the anger of the the rebels
Ulster and Wexford stage large risings, Wexford rebels succeeding in taking the county
Many Irish protestants are killed or forced to flee in, Wexford
Battle at Vinegar Hill
Castlebar Battle is a short lived victory for a small French force, but the Rebellion dies out, leaving the Irish with less independence than what they started with
A young rebel from Dublin, who organized an unsuccessful rebellion, aiming to seize Dublin Castle. He was captured after he fled from the 1803 rebellion.
Gen. Gerard Lake
Other rebel leaders, who were executed as Protestants, and had their heads placed on spikes outside the Wexford Court, in the Battle of Vinegar Hill
A large French expedition sailed for Ireland in 1796 under his
command (in order to help the Irish defeat the British)
Worked for the government and was a large part of suppressing the rebellion
Father John Murphy
A Catholic priest, who was regarded as one of the most inspirational rebel leaders of 1798. His followers were mostly composed of untrained farmers and townspeople.
Was it worth the brutal butchering of
10,000-50,000 civilians and combatants?
Was it worth shattering the
already quite fragile Irish relations with
England for centuries to come?
Was it worth sacrificing
hundreds of Irish rebels to be transported
to penal colonies of Australia?
And was it worth invoking remembrance
and a reenactment of the equally horrific
and bloody rebellions of 1641?
No, it was most certainly not worth the cost of the devastating amount of pain and lives lost. To add to their agony, nothing was achieved except failure.
Most importantly resulted from longstanding resentment over the oppression of Catholic Ireland, by the British government.
The "Society of United Irishmen of Belfast" originated in order to create a separate, peaceful government, away from English oppression (1791)
The "SUIB" was banned by the Dublin authorities, due to it's popular ideas among citizens and treasonous admiration for the United States democratic government
Additionally, the Irish government had viewed the society with resentment and suspicion, and eventually acted upon such by further suppressing citizens
England caused further outrage, as they introduced increasingly strong anti-Catholic laws, by a largely Protestant England. The laws left the Irish strongly divided on several grounds, not only with religion, but with language and a ethnicity as well.
Angered, the group sought a rebellion
They looked to secure a reform of Irish parliament (doing so by uniting Catholics, Protestants and Non-conformists into one movement
The revolution stemmed from a vast suppression of Irish culture by their English rulers
Despite Ireland's original goal of complete independence, the nasty rebellion only caused England's grip to be tighter with more limitations due to the Act of Union in 1801 put in place after all the uprisings. The Act of Union specifically abolished the Irish Parliament so that Ireland was under almost complete British control. So not only did their plan fail epically, but in the 5 months in Ireland when the tirade of the year 1798 pursued, approximately 300,000 people were killed, including the 34 assumed Society leaders and revolutionaries. Ireland was chaotic and a place of havoc during the revolution, creating mistrust, paranoia, and bloody footprints that would not easily wash away until a great deal of time had passed.
As for the rest of the world...
so what Happened?
By McKenna D. and Maighenn W.
Where was all this?
The Battle of Vinegar Hill, the infamous last battle of the Rebellion, was fought June 21st, 1798, lead by crown forces. A force 0f 10,000 launched an attack on the 20,000 some rebels that occupied Vinegar Hill.
Under the command of General Lake, the English surrounded the rebels, before attacking cavalry. The men then took the liberty to indulge in the rape and murder of the Irish from nearby Enniscorthy, whether involved with the rebellion or not.
Rebel leaders including Bagenal Harvey, Cornelius Grogan and Anthony Perry were captured, and executed, with heads stuck on spikes outside a courthouse (all for being Protestants).
This event was the rebel's last attempt to hold and defend their ground against the armies of King George III.
The battle seized an English victory, and brutally brought an end to the Rebellion of 1798. Eventually, it resulted in the Act of Union.
Wexford rebels were the most successful of the Irishmen revolutionaries. There were major uprisings, giving the rebels the opportunity to take the county. But in the chaos, the people acted rashly. The patriots began attacking known loyalists in fear that the government soldiers would come and arrest them for their uprising. Once the real fighting got started, up to 100 people died on both sides. Since the government had disarmed the rebels, they fought with stakes and possible items around town. Hearing of he fighting in Wexford, thousands of people marched to join the cause. Wexford was held by the rebels for three weeks and that time is referred to as the "Wexford Republic". The downfall of the "Republic" was wen the leaders decided to break up their army, some going North to Vinegar Hill, and the rest south to New Ross. On the marches to the destinations, the rebels forces attacked towns and took loyalists as prisoners. At this point, the rebellion had just become violent and cruel, similar to an Irish version of the Reign of Terror from the French Revolution.
In the hopes of achieving Independence from England and creating a separate Republic, The Society of United Irishmen was created by Theobald Tone. Once the government and English government suppressed the organization in fear of what the organization could achieve, the society moved underground.
They sought French military intervention because they knew they would need the extra willpower to defeat the British. The French agreed and planned to bring 14,000 soldiers lead by Gen. Hoche to the west coast of Ireland, but the group was unable to carry on with their promises when adverse weather prevented them from coming to the rescue.
As tension began to grow larger and larger and sides were to be chosen, Ireland was bitterly divided as loyalists hurried to join the British army and the United Irishmen's groups grew exponentially. The economy helped the Irish gain support due to the price of grain falling. Angry farmers and venders were ready to fight, as their entire lifestyle was already on the line. Of course, all the pent up anger of the Irish worried the British Government. Thus started the disarmament campaign, allowing authorities to raid houses and confiscate weapons. Again, this backfired for the British because it only increased the angry and mistrust of the government and the military. They wanted to arm themselves to protect themselves and their human rights.
On the night of the 23 of May, 1978, the mail coaches leaving Dublin were seized as a signal for other revolutionaries that the rebellion had begun.
A Campaign of Terror arose against the Irish. After the signal in Dublin was release, the communication between the rebel grouped went downhill from their. The rebels lashed out and there was a lack of coordination between uprisings. It was absolute chaos. What had been a peaceful and organized society became thousands of individuals who began to full fill their own desires and greed in the name of the rebellion. What was intended to be a noble cause became a deadly terror of an Island.
Part of the inspiration for the rebellion was the fact that Ireland was feeling very suppressed in their ability as a country. This of course created tension that built on the same tension that had caused the uprisings a hundred years earlier. So the 1798 Revolts would also leave a heavy footprint for the next 200 years. Another monumental revolution by the Irish people occurred in 1916 and it was greatly inspired by the rebels of the 1798 uprisings. The tension of the 1798 Revolution still plays a role in Irish politics and Irish opinions on the matter. Still sung are the rebel songs of the many battles for by the Irish in attempts to bring freedom to their country. But the bravery and reaction and results of oppression were not lost on the rest of the world. The events appeared prevalently in several pieces of literature in the early 19th century after the entire ordeal had been "handled" by the British. The way the British delt with the rebellion also lead a large part of the rest of the world to targeting them in political satires and and accusing them of censorship and denying rights to their people, raising paranoia in the early Romantic Era.
While battles all across Ireland began springing up, Ulster, a county in the more north-eastern part of the Island, started to form a plan. Before the plan began with the new addition of Henry Joy McCracken, Ulster was divided on the matter of their silence in the revolution. Many argued that they should start an uprising to join the cause as another strong county, which in turn lead to new leaders including McCracken. A rebel force made up of a Presbyterian majority captured Antrim town. However this exhilarating capture only lasted them but a few hours until they were driven off. The government, in hopes of stopping the rebel victory, began "with great slaughter" showering the rebels with artillery fire. Basically defeated, the Antrim rebels lost interest and began return to their homes. Society leader, McCracken, was captured and executed a few weeks later, marking the end of the rebellion for the north-east
The Dublin government stepped up its game against the Society and were nearly successful in destroying them. Several spies for the government carried many of the secrets of the larger rebel counties. Except in Wexford, probably one they should have watched closer. The Dublin Castle received little information on Wexford and mistakenly believed it was due to peace. By the time information finally did get to the government, the authorities reacted by executing approximately 34 suspected members of the Society of Irishmen of Belfast. Yet the Irishmen resolved to prevail. On the night of the 23 of May, 1978, the mail coaches leaving Dublin were seized as a signal for other revolutionaries that the rebellion had begun.
Bartlett, Thomas, Dr. "The 1798 Irish Rebellion." BBC News. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 05 Jan. 2015.
Hamrock, Ivor. "In Humbert's Footsteps: 1798 & the Year of the French." Mayo County Library. Mayo County Library, 2014. Web. 6 Jan. 2015.http://www.mayolibrary.ie/en/LocalStudies/InHumbertsFootsteps/
Heath, Shannon. "Irish Uprising of 1798." Romantic Politics. University of Tennessee English Department, n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2015.http://web.utk.edu/~gerard/romanticpolitics/uprising.html
"Irish Rebellion." Encylopedia Britannica. Encylopedia Britannica, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 6 Jan. 2015.http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/294143/Irish-Rebellion
"Museums and Attractions: Vinegar Hill." Ireland. N.p., 2014. Web. 6 Jan. 2015.http://www.ireland.com/what-is-available/attractions-built-heritage/museums-and-attractions/destinations/republic-of-ireland/wexford/enniscorthy/all/1-88895/
"The 'Republic' of Wexford." The 'Republic' of Wexford. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2015.
"Today In Irish History." Today In Irish History. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2015
O'Neill, Terry.. Dublin: Irish Music Licensing Ltd, 2009. Web. 8 Jan. 2015. By Memory Inspired: Songs Of The 1798 Rising.
leaders of the Society of the United Irishmen
Henry Joy McCracken
Betsy Gray, The Patriot Maid
Henry Joy McCracken
Ireland All Over
All Irish Folk Songs Inspired by the Remembrance of the 1798 Rebellion
sung by Terry O'Neil on the album Memory Inspired: Songs Of The 1798 Rising
These will be played on the smartphone next to the presentation to give the feel of the Rebellion and the Irish pride that lead and still leads their country