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15: Music Chamber and Church in the Early Seventeenth Centur
Transcript of 15: Music Chamber and Church in the Early Seventeenth Centur
Italian Vocal Chamber Music
secular music involved ensembles with voices and was performed in private music-making or by amateurs for their own enjoyment
for elites: they combine elements of the madrigal, monody, dance song, dramatic recitative and aria
3 developments in Italy: concerto works, basso ostinato and the cantata
Secular Works in Concertato Style
Composers composed pieces usually for solo voice or small vocal ensemble with basso continuo, sometimes including other instruments.
Many of these were more widely known than any of the operas.
Polyphonic madrigal with instrumental accompaniment
could be trace through Monteverdi's fifth to eight books of Madrigals
(fifth) solos, duets, trios sre set off against the vocal ensemble, there are instruments and ritornellos
(7th Concerto) strophic variations and canzonettas
(8th Madrigali guerrieri et amorosi) madrigals for five voices, ranges from imitative polyphony and homophonic declamation, typical of 16th c. madrigals, to operatic recitative and stile concitato (excited style).
Italian for persistent bass
also known as ground bass
a pattern in the bass that repeats while the melody above it changes
examples: Guardame las vacas
a step wise descent spanning a forth which Monteverdi in his Lamento della ninfa (Lament of the Nymph)
falling countour and constand repetition
conveys distress through strong dissonances
vivacious dance-song imported from Latin-America into Spain and then to Italy
one of the first types of music to be brought from the New World to Europe
the refrain followed a repeating pattern of chords played on the guitar
new genre of chamber music emerged in Italy during the 17th c.
meaning "a piece to be sung"
a secular composition with continuo usually for solo voice on a quasi-dramatic text, included both recitatives and arias
composed for private performance in the aristocratic homes
leading composers: Luigi Rossi, Antonio Cesti, Giacomo Carisimi, and Barbara Strozzi
Strozzi's Lagrime mie
representative of the solo cantata in presenting sections of recitative, arioso, and aria
changes style and figuration frequently to capture the moods and images of the text
Song outside Italy
Air de cour- most important genre of secular song
-a homophonic, strophic for four to five voices or for solo voice with lute accompaniment
-associated with the Royal court
-syllabic with simple diatonic, elegantly arching melodies, and tend to lack melismas, sequences, word-painting used by Italian composers
Example: Ma bergere non legere
English composers continued to write consort songs, madrigals, and lute songs in the national tradition
in German speaking regions, composers in both catholic and Lutheran churches soon took up the new monodic and concertato technique.
sacred music in Austria and catholic southern Germany remained under strong Italian influence
composers in the Lutheran central and northern regions employed new media
EARLY 17th CENTURY COMPOSERS OF MANY BIBLICAL MOTETS
;Hans leo hassler
JOHANN HERMANN SEHEIN (1586_1630)
;published 2 important collections in 1618 and 1626 at leipzig, both titled opella nova (new liitle works)
-1st book: consists of chiefly of duets with continuo on chorales - freely phrasing the chorale melodies, inserting vocal
-embellishments and dwiding phrases among the voices.
-2nd book: includes more varied often using 1 or more solo instruments and contrasting solo with ensemble sections.
HEINRICH SCHUTZ (1585-1672)
master at applying the new italian styles to church music.
he is particularly renowned for writing music that captures the meanings and imagery of the text.
KLEINE GEISTLICHE KONZERTE (small sacred concertos): motets for one 5 solo voices with continuo that are perfect microcosmos of his style
-use to convey the meaning of the words
CHRISTOPH BERNHARD (1627-1692)
-German theorist that catalogue figure that break the rules of traditional counterpoint but are useful to composers in interpreting the text.
-CADENTIAE DURIUSCULAC -harsh cadential notes
-SALTUS DURIUSCULUS - harsh leap
-a musical setting based on a biblical narrative (COUNTERPOINT OF ORATORIO)
-a prominent genre in Lutheran tradition
-most common types of hystoria, a musical setting of the story of Jesus crucifixion.
continued to gain independence from vocal music
instrumental composers borrowed many elements typical of vocal idioms such as the employment of basso continuo, affections, virtuosic embellishments, stylistic contrast, styles such as recitative and aria
Four ways to categorized Baroque instrumental music:
by performing forces
type of composition
1650 broad categories prevailed:
keyboard and lure pieces in imrovisatory style called toccata, fantasia, or prelude
fugal pieces in continuous imitative counterpoint called ricercare, fantasia, fancy, capriccio, or fugue
pieces with contrasting sections, often in imitative counterpoint, called canzona or sonata
setting of existing melodoies as in an organ verse or chorale prelude
pieces that vary a given melody (variations, partita) chorale, or bass line
dances and other pieces in stylize dance rhythms whether independent, paired or linked together in a suite
Fiori musicali, illustrated the role of tocattat as music service, a set of three organ masses each containing all the music an organist would play at mass
Johann Jacob Froberger, student of Frescobaldi, whose works were model for the later merging toccata and fugue
Ricercare and Fugue
Ricercare-made one subject or theme to continuously developed in imitation
Fugue- "flight" used for the technique of imitation
an imitative work on larger scale than the ricercare and had mor complex organiozation
two leading composer: Jan Pieterszoon Sweenlinck and jis pupil Samuel scheidt
Scheidt's Tabulature Nova
the leading genre was the imitative fantasia, often called fancy
popular composers included Alfonso Ferrabosco, and John Coprario
imitative piece for keyboard or ensemble in several contrasting sections, either as chamber music or in church
SETTINGS OF EXISTING MELODIES
-16th centuries- organist improvised or composed settings of liturgical melodies for use in church services
-keyboard and lute composers wrote sets of variations on borrowed newly composed themes
:chorale prelude-organ chorales.
:variations or partite- parts or divisions
-cantus firmus variations- melody is repeated with little change but is surrounded by different contrapuntal material in each variation and may wander from one voice to another.
-melody ussually in topmost voice, recieves different ebellishment in each variation while the underlying harmonies remain essentially unchanged.
-bass/harmonic progression, rather than the melody, is held constant while the figuration chang
CHACONNE AND PASSACAGLIA
in later centuries, the distinction the two faded,
the terms became interchangeable
familiar to modern listeners
dances were composed for social dancing
stylized form for chamber music
SUITES- the idea of linking 2 or 3 dances together