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Polymer Facts

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by

Catie Kopp

on 8 February 2015

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Transcript of Polymer Facts

Polymer Facts
Polymers
Applications
Innovative Traditional
Raw Materials
Material Classification
Thermoplastics:
Comparative Characteristics
8 Properties of Polymers:
Cites
http://www.plasticpackagingfacts.org/Plastics-101
http://www.styron.com/image/plastics-life-cycle-2.jpg
http://www.thesaurus.com/browse/resistance
plastics.americanchemistry.com
plymerexpert.fr
ensinger-online.com
http://plastics.americanchemistry.com/Education-Resources/Plastics-101/The-Basics-Polymer-Definition-and-Properties.html
http://www.cmu.edu/gelfand/k12-teachers/polymers/natural-synthetic-polymers/index.html
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/synthetic?s=t
http://www.chemheritage.org/research/policy-center/oral-history-program/projects/rubber-matters/feature-polymers-a-brief-history.aspx
http://sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/Enviro-imprints/Looking-Closer/Measuring-biodegradability
Cope's Plastics Book, By: Dwight Cope, 272 pages, The Goodheart-Willcox Co.
Engineering Materials Technology, By: James A. Jacobs and Thomas F. Kilduff, 633 pages, Premtice Hall Career and Technology
History
Natural Polymers: Silk, Wool, Proteins Chemically Combined in 1800s: Rubber, Gun Cotton
3D Model: World of Plastics
By: Scarlett Lonsky, Troy Tratt, and Catherine Kopp
In 1909: First semi-synthetic (came from multiple substances) polymers, made by Bakelite
In 1911: First synthetic fiber (made through a chemical process), produced by Rayon
After World War Two, polymers became more important due to the loss of natural resources
latex, wool, silk nylon, acrylic, neoprene
John W. Hyatt won a contest using Celluloid (trees, grains) to replace ivory in 1868
skin healer
plastic lumber
tendon builder
water collection
water bottles
clothing
plastic bags
utensils
The reasons people use certain plastics: water proof; durable; they aren't conductors of heat; flexible; strong
Examples of Recyclable Plastics: water bottles, bags
Original Form
tar
shellac
horns
tortoise shells
oil
natural gas
certain tree saps
celluloid--trees and grains
Examples
After Processing
Examples
hair pieces
jewelry
water bottles
lining to mechanical pencils
clothes
garbage bags
containers
molecular chains are not linked together
have plastic elastic ability and are thermo-formable(being able to be welded)
Thermoset Plastics:
molecular chains are close together and are "cross linked"
they can't be shaped after hardened
they can not be melted
they have good chemical protection
Mechanical

Thermal

Chemical

Optical

Electrical

Acoustical

Environmental

Physical
Mechanical Properties
High density and molecular weight
Leads to, "increase in tensile strength, hardness, creep resistance, and fluxural strength."
Leads to decrease in "impact resistance and percentage of elongation."
Thermal Properties
Common plastics:
loose strength at low temperatures
(low-no stress) can not take temperatures above 150 Degrees Celsius
hard rubbery, supper cooled liquid liquid
not good conductors of heat
containers, outlet liners
volume decreases when cooling as a result of the "thermal mixing of the atoms and molecular chains..." slowing down
Chemical Properties
They don't corrode like metals
But, may experience a chemical reaction or deterioration
measured by the amount of weight gained (Chemical combines with the plastic)
results in discoloration of the material, fine cracks throughout the substance, and swelling loss of flexibility and impact strength
as temperature increases, the chemical tolerance decreases as a result
Optical Properties
high crystalline opacity developes
plastics have an amorphous structure--transparent
can bend light (serves as light pipes)
"certain plastics (acrylics, polyester, cellulose, and polystyrene) show colorful stress concentrations when viewed with a polarized-light filter."
Electrical Properties
plastics are good insulators
resist the heat of silicons and fluorocarbons well
arc resistant ("ability of a material to withstand the arcing effect of an electrical current.")
When carbonized, either:
become a conductor (flames create thin tracks between electrodes)
become an incandescent (glowing hot) conductor
Acoustical Properties
has sound properties--polymers are used for dampening sound
need to put holes in it and shape it well for it to allow sound to travel (used in auditoriums)
Environmental Properties
polymers are usually made from petroleum
for the most part, plastics are recycled versions of natural gas, crude oil, or coal (They can also come from celluloid--trees and grains)
many medical devices rely on polymers
Polymers decompose slowly--plastic bags take, "500 years to forever," to biodegrade (scientists use respirometry tests to figure this out)
plastics can be processed:
mimic other materials (cotton, silk, wool fibers
injection molding (car parts)
create unnatural things--clear sheets, flexible films
Physical Properties
usually light weight (plastic water bottles are lighter than metal water bottles)
strong but some are also flexible
there is a large range in material use--mechanical pencil lining to Kevlar (bullet-proof vests)
some retain a certain shape while others are willing to change their shape
polymers come in many different colors
many different shapes
many different colors
Steps:
found a circular shape object
paper-machaed it with glue and graphing paper
drew out the continents according to the Library's globe size
painted it blue
covered each continent with some sort of polymer
touched it up
Importance:
shows commonly used polymers that we may not recognize as such
demonstrates that people all over the world use them
represents the world-wide importance of plastics
polymers are usually synthetic--man-made
able to create things for a specific purpose
they conserve natural resources
polymers are usually created from natural things--they are then processed with heat and pressure
People use polymers because they are durable, waterproof, and they don't conduct heat
The living hinge--polypropylene and polyethylene:
bends like a hinge
is connected throughout (no additional materials)
Where they come from:
environment--forests and animals
RECYCLED/REUSE:
water bottles are turned in for money
you wear clothes many times before they wear out
mold certain plastics into a different use
use sturdier bags at the grocery store instead of new plastic bags every time
recycled plastics: Thermoplastics (molecular chains aren't cross-linked)
RECYCLE SYMBOLS:
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