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Leadership

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Emily Dean

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of Leadership

CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Hersey-Blanchard's Situational Theory
Fiedler's Contingency Model
Path-Goal Theory
The Path-Goal theory states that it is the leaders' job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
Directive
Letting subordinates know what you expect from them
Making sure they are aware of how to get work done by following the rules provided
Introduction
Welcome to the training program for upcoming leaders of Bapple Inc.

Today's session is about contingency leadership theories.
Answers
Question 3:
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory:
Jane is able and unwilling in her maturity level.
Supportive
Having consideration for the needs and requirements of your subordinates
Providing an uplifting and friendly atmosphere for your subordinates to work in
Achievement-oriented
Providing challenging work for your employees
Placing emphasis on the need for high quality performance in the workplace
Exhibits confidence that subordinates will get tasks completed efficiently and effectively
Participative
Managers taking into account subordinates ideas and suggestions
Objectives
To train you to become more flexible leaders when pressured by contingency factors.
Describe the three contingency leadership theories.
Explain the importance of contingency factors in implementing specific leadership behaviour.
Compare and contrast these theories' approaches on contingency.
Discuss how flexibility can contribute to effective leadership.
Task behaviour
is the degree of
direction
given by the leader.
Relationship behaviour
is the level of
support
given by the leader.
Two types of behaviour
Workshop activity!
A leadership theory in which the leader must adjust their style to match the development level of the followers. This involves the leader varying both task- and relationship-behaviours to adjust to the readiness of the followers.
Maturity / Follower readiness
Readiness
is the degree of
motivation
and amount of
experience
a follower has.
History of Leadership
Traits
1930
Leadership
is defined as
the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Research has concluded that a good leader possesses specific traits, skills and behaviours.
Definition of Leadership
1940
Behaviours
1965
Contingency
onwards
Topic of today!
Case study questions
QUESTION 1:
Luke has figured out that Jane is Task-Oriented when she should be Relationship-Oriented. There are two ways that Luke can fix this problem according to Fielder's Contingency Model. What are they? Is it appropriate for this situation in reality?
QUESTION 2:
What leadership style should Luke use in helping Jane with her performance according to the Path-Goal Theory? What does the leadership style do?
QUESTION 3A:
What level of maturity does Jane have according to the Situational Theory?
QUESTION 3B:
What type of leadership style should Luke adapt to in order to make Jane complete her tasks appropriately according to the Situational Theory?
Luke owns and manages the successful restaurant Horizons.
Two months ago, he hired a lady named Jane to be a waitress, which got the job because she knew one of Luke’s closest friends. Luke’s friend talked high of Jane, saying that she was a very dependable, responsible and ambitious young woman that had some years experience in the hospitality industry since before. The proposal sounded fantastic, so without question, Luke took Jane on the team. During the first month of Jane's employment, Luke was very satisfied with his choice of employee as she did a very good job. However, during the second month, Jane did not prove her description.
Customers reported Jane to be very rude and reckless. Luke noticed that she did not have any motivation to do her tasks properly with passion. As he does not like being involved in conflicts, he has been avoiding bringing it up with Jane. However, something needs to be changed as customer complaints are piling up.
Conclusion
Objective:
To allow you to become more flexible leaders while under pressure of contingency factors.
3 theories:
Fiedler's Contingency Model, Path-Goal Theory and Situational Theory.
Comparisons:
Advantages, disadvantages, focuses, contingency factors.
Case study:
Practical situation, applying the theories.
Conclusion:
Importance of flexibility in regard to differing circumstances.
Questions
Contingency theories
assume that "effective leadership depends on the contingencies of the particular situation".
Task-Oriented Leaders
Relationship-Oriented Leader
Combinations of Situational Characters
Fielder’s contingency model suggests that effective leadership and team performance are depending on the right match of leadership style and the degree of leader’s control in the situation.
The main factor of success in leadership is based on individuals leadership style.
There are two styles a leader can be: task-oriented or relationship-oriented which is determined by the least preferred co-worker questionnaire.
Contingency Dimensions
1. Leader-member relations
is the degree of confidence, trust and respect members have in their leader.
2. Task structure
is the degree to which the job assignment are procedurised.
3. Position power
is the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions and salary increases.
Perform best in high and low control situations
Preform best in moderate control situations
References
Leadership-central.com, “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory”, retrieved 1/9/2014 at http://www.leadership-central.com/fiedler's-contingency-theory.html.
Leadership-central.com, “Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory”, retrieved 1/9/2014 at http://www.leadership-central.com/situational-leadership-theory.html.
Leadership-central.com, “Path-Goal Theory”, retrieved 1/9/2014 at http://www.leadership-central.com/path-goal-theory.html.
Martin, R. (2006), “Path-Goal Theory of Leadership” in Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA.
Robbins, S. P., Judge, T. A., Millett, B., & Boyle, M. (2011), Organisational Behaviour, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Frenchs Forest NSW.
Schermerhorn, J. R., Davidson, P., Poole, D., Simon, A., Woods, P., & Chau, S. L. (2011), Management Foundations and Applications, John Wiley & Sons Australia Inc., New York, US.
(Martin, 2009)
Leaders
The leadership style is fixed, meaning if the leader does not suit the situation, the task must be modified or the leader must be replaced.
Three contingency dimensions to determine the style of leadership: Leader-member relations; Task structure; and Position power.

Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory:
Supportive/ Participative Leadership Style
Appropriate for medium or high skill but unwilling to do the job
Luke should focus more on the building relationship and allow Jane to work in team as well as participating in a certain level of decision making

Question 2:
Path Goal Theory:
Supportive Leadership Style
Showing concern for their welfare and creating friendly working environment.
This approach is best when the work is stressful, boring or hazardous.
Question 1:
Fiedler’s Contingency Model:
Leadership style is fixed.
There are only TWO ways to solve this issue.
Change the LEADER or SITUATION
Either Jane would be replaced by a more relationship-oriented person, OR
Amend task structure that suits Jane's capability and personality (i.e. Inventory, Negotiation)
Question 4:
Comparisons
Flexibility
No single best contingency leadership theory
Contingency factors sometimes don't match the theories
Leaders need to be flexible in order to be an effective leader
Full transcript