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GMO Biotechnology Reasearch Presentation

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Dara Woo

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of GMO Biotechnology Reasearch Presentation

GMO's
By: Amanda Hua, Danielle Koontz, Dara Woo, and Julianna Cho Period 1
Imagine if you had super powers.
Bigger
Stronger
Faster
Prettier
There would be unlimited possibilities!
What are GMO's
Genetically Modified Organisms
Organisms who's genetic material has been altered
Analogy: Captain America was selected to become the "perfect soldier". He went to a lab where they injected his DNA with other DNA to make him bigger, better, stronger, and faster.
Bacteria Technology
Examples of GMO's
These are foods that have a high percentage of gentetic modification:
soy
sugar beets
corn
hawaiian papaya
rice
milk
meats
Needle Technology
How does all of this relate to Bio?
How are GMO's made?
Where and how should we put this slide into our presentation?
GMO in DNA
+Pros +
- Cons -
1. Doctor's are urged to tell their patients to avoid GMO's because:
-animal tests have shown that GMO's have large affects on them:
-organ damage
-immune system disorders
-faster aging rate
-infertility
- Cons -
Studies on humans have shown that GMO's leave behind bacteria in our bodies.

The bacteria has the potential to cause future issues in people's bodies!
- Cons -

-Ever since GMO's have been introduced to society many people have fallen sick to chronic illnesses
The AAEM instructs everyone to
avoid
GM foods

Even though there is not
direct
evidence pointing towards GMO's for
causing
the diseases AAEM thinks its better to be
safe
than sorry
? Questions to Think About ?
What we choose to do now can make a big impact on our own future.
We need to make a choice.
GMO's?
Yes
or
No
?
How Expensive are GMO's?
Take a guess.
Guess what?
It's a
million
dollars
minimum
to just DEVELOP the new GMO. That's about the cost of a
small
personal

aircraft!
It's a
HUNDRED MILLION DOLLARS.
Do you know what you could
buy
with a hundred million dollars?

And what's the maximum? That's a trick question. The development costs are rising quickly. But what's the current ceiling?
You could get a 25,000 square foot
mansion
.

Particle gun technology!
There are 4 parts:
-
plastic bullet
-
tiny pellets of gold or tungsten (a rare metal) coated in DNA
-
particle gun
-
metal sheet

First,
the
pellets
are put in the gun and the plastic bullet is
loaded
.

+Pros +
GMO's can also be used to
produce
food (fruits and vegetables) at a higher rate by speeding up
cell growth
and causing plants to hold more
fruit
.


They're also easier for
farmers
to grow and
care
for, and so you can grow
more
for less effort.
+Pros +
Economic advantages:

Biotech companies grow larger, meaning more
jobs
for people, which can lead to a
better economy
Higher food
production
means more
food
to go around, which means that surplus food can be shared with the
poor and hungry
1973

Recombinant DNA Created
The idea for
man-made DNA
comes from a grad student at Stanford University.
Professor Herbert Boyer
and a few of his biologist colleagues run with it.

1975

Asilomar Conference
A group of
biologists
get together with a few
lawyers
and doctors to create guidelines for the
safe use
of
genetically engineered DNA.

1980

First GMO Patent Issued
A 1980 court case between a genetics engineer at General Electric and the
U.S. Patent Office
is settled by a 5-to-4 Supreme Court ruling, allowing for the
first patent on a living organism.

1994

GMO Hits Grocery Stores
The
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
approves
the Flavr Savr tomato for sale on grocery store shelves. The
delayed-ripening tomato
has a longer shelf life than conventional tomatoes.


1996


GMO-Resistant Weeds
Research shows that the super weeds are
seven to 11 times
more resistant to
glyphosate
than the standard weed.

1997

Mandatory Labels
The European Union rules in favor of
mandatory
labeling on
all GMO food products
, including animal feed.

1999

GMO Food Crops Dominate
Over
100 million acres worldwide
are planted with genetically engineered
seeds
. The marketplace begins embracing GMO technology at an
alarming rate.


GMO's timeline
Do you want to look like this rat?
This could be our future... Is this what we want?
GMO BOOM
GMO's Timeline
Sweet Corn:
Corn that is genetically modified to include an
insect-killing gene
. This means the farmer doesn’t have to spray with pesticides, because the insects
die
from eating the corn.
More examples of GMO'S
Wild salmon takes about three years to reach its full size. GM salmon not only grows faster but also reaches about twice the size.
Soybeans can feed humans and animals, create biofuels and foam (coolers, car interior, shoe insoles, etc.), and oils. GMO's enhance the size of the soy bean.
Particle Gun Technology
Now, you have a bullet speeding through the barrel of the gun with little pellets covered in DNA clinging on.

Third,
there is a sheet of metal with really
small
holes in it at the end of the barrel. When the
PLASTIC BULLET
hits the metal, it's too
big
to go through the holes, but the
PELLETS
are small enough, so they, with their

inertia, go through, into the organism they will be
modifying,
and into the
cells,
into the cytoplasm. Once they are there, the DNA they
carry
can start modifying the cells.
What's the
minimum
and
maximum
cost?
First: Why yes?
There are also ethical reasons:
What happens if you had a potential for a
disease
and it was genetically
inherited
?

What if you could modify your
children's
DNA to make it so that they would be
better
(GATTACA)? Do you really want the
power
to change your child?

You could
end
world hunger, an on going problem since... FOREVER.

But then again... Why no?
Pros
and
Cons

of

GMO's

GMO's have been known to cause
illness
and other
health problems
.

Also, they're using test organisms to design all of these GMOs. They are
killing animals
, just for the small
chance
that there will be a better future.

Are we willing to take that chance?
Also, there are ethical reasons.
How are GMO's made?
Do we want to allow others to kill plants and animals to test these GMO's?
If we allow this testing to
continue
how
many
plants and animals are we
willing
to kill before we find the
correct formula
for GMO's to be
safe
?

We aren't guaranteed a good future because of GMO's. What if our
future
isn't so bright if we decide to use GMO's?
Are we willing to take that risk?
Many non-genetic manufactured plants are killed from insects/weeds:
+
With GMO's the plants would be able to
fend
off the
harmful
predators (corn)

+
Therefore

with the
rapid
increase of
population,
we are also able to increase the
food production.

Non-Genetic manufactured plants are also killed from the weather conditions:

+
With GMO's the plants can
adapt
to the
unpredictable
environments therefore less of the crops will be damaged =
more
food for us! :) (strawberry)
Bacteria is also used to
genetically
transform organisms.
Agrobacterium
is the
bacteria
used to modify
plants.
(Agro- like agriculture, plants)

Lentiviruses
have the ability to modify
animals.
Either one of these is
inserted
into the organism and
changes
the organism's DNA, using the
needle
technology.
Ultimately the decision is up to
us.
Do
YOU
think we should have GMO's in
society
?
Thanks for Listening!
Genes can also be inserted using very thin needles to insert DNA directly into the cell membrane. From there, the cell will take in the DNA.
This is the stereotypical way
.
1. What is more important to us? Our health or feeding the entire population food, which has the potential to harm us?
2. Will eating harmful food be more beneficial to a growing population?

3. Is it worth risking the health of others just so we can produce more food?
Second,
the trigger is pulled, and as the bullet moves through the
barrel
of the gun, the metal pellets are
released
and attach to the bullet.
3 ways to make GMO's:
1.
Particle Gun
2.
Needle Technology
3.
Bacteria Technology
3 components of making GMO's:
1.
The gene you want to transfer
2.
The organism you want to put it into
3.
A vector to carry the gene into the target species cells.
.
You know the phrase "sick as a pig"?
GMO =
Genetically
Modified Organism
Lately, we all have been learning about genetics and DNA:

- when organisms are genetically modified their
DNA is altered
to change the organism
-Scientists can
add
and
remove
different
traits
from the organism
-This will then change the organism's
genotype
making it appear to our own liking
-It's
splicing
, just artificially.
I don't think we actually need this slide because we already have several examples of GMO's so I don't think we need to add more
Cons of GMO's
Time to make a decision
They can even modify foods to
taste better,
therefore decreasing the rate of obesity!
Feed the
growing
population
Help feed 3rd world countries or people in need
Possibly add more
vitamins
and health benefits to vegetables, etc.

Future of GMO's
GM
NO
's!
Dr. Montgomery, M., D. Boucher, and et al. N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://www.macalester.edu/~montgomery/GMOs.htm>.

. N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://www.nongmoproject.org/learn-more/>.

Butler, T.. N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://organic.lovetoknow.com/History_of_GMOs>.

Phillips, T.. N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetically-modified-organisms-gmos-transgenic-crops-and-732>.

Diaz, J., and J. Keil. Encyclopedia britannica, Inc., 2009. 0. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/897705/genetically-modified-organism-GMO>.

hudsonalpha, . N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://www.hudsonalpha.org/education/kits/gmod/gmos-made>.

. N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://www.responsibletechnology.org/10-Reasons-to-Avoid-GMOs>.

. N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://www.responsibletechnology.org/gmo-education>.

. N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://gmoinside.org/gmo-timeline-a-history-genetically-modified-foods/>.

. N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/522596/why-we-will-need-genetically-modified-foods/>.

. N.p.. Web. 30 Jan 2014. <http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1112915266/list-of-gmo-foods-080513/>.




Works Cited
Genetically
improve

Pick and
choose
our
children
, for the best
traits
(GATTACA)
Create
"friends"
for lonely children out of fruit for example
Enhance
abilties
for super humans
Make
healthy
foods taste
better
so we can eat more of them
Make really
big
fruit run so we can ride them instead of
cars
and
reduce
air pollution (plants breathe in CO2)
Full transcript