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Using Cognitive, Behavioural, Social Theories to Enhance Teaching Practices
Transcript of Using Cognitive, Behavioural, Social Theories to Enhance Teaching Practices
2. Toddler (Will) – Autonomy vs. Shame
3. Preschooler (Purpose) – Initiative vs. Guilt
4. School-Age Child (Competence) – Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Adolescent (Fidelity) – Identity vs. Identity Diffusion
6. Young Adult (Love) – Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Middle-aged Adult (Care) – Generativity vs. Self-absorption
8. Older Adult (Wisdom) – Integrity vs. Despair Instructional Strategies Eric Erickson's Stages of Development People have to through a series stages that can be impacted by external factors, parenting and society from childhood to adulthood. Each stage is defined by a conflicting duality. Piaget's Stage of Cognitive development: Entails a gradual cognitive progression related to biological development, where people acquire, construct and use knowledge Classroom Environment age appropriate and individual appropriate classroom library Instructional Strategies important to find age appropriate and individual appropriate materials for effective instruction (e.g. math manipulatives for young primary students vs. a scientific calculator) Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Effective Conditions for Modelling Instructional Strategies Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory People learn new behaviours from one another through modeling, imitation and observation which can be determined by the "reciprocal interaction of cognitive, behavioural, and environmental influences". Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory Social interaction in humans precedes development, and cognition and conscious are a by-product of social behaviour and socialization. Classroom Environment Texts must be at appropriate reading level, not too easy and not too difficult. Instructional Strategies Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Hierarchy of Needs Instructional Strategies Teach students a lesson on the hierarchy of needs to illustrate how humans are motivated by this hierarchy. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Humans are motivated to attain goals to satisfy their needs. Lower-ordered needs to be satisfied before higher-order needs change behaviour. Stages of Development Preoperational stage (ages 2 to 4)
Children do not comprehend concrete logic, cannot process information, adept at using symbols to make connections, and understand others point of view Concrete operations (ages 7 to 11)
Using logic and systematic manipulation of symbols, the child can make rational decisions about their concrete experiences Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2 years old)
Infants build an understanding between self and reality through their interaction with environment Formal operations (beginning at ages 11 to 15)
Individual is logically able to use symbols in relation to abstract concepts, ability to think hypothetically and use deductive reasoning Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaget's_theory_of_cognitive_development#Concrete_operational_stage andhttp://www.learning-theories.com/piagets-stage-theory-of-cognitive-development.html Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaget's_theory_of_cognitive_development#Concrete_operational_stage andhttp://www.learning-theories.com/piagets-stage-theory-of-cognitive-development.html Source: Teaching Effective Strategies: A Guide to Effective Instruction (2012) and http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Piaget's_Stages respectful and empathetic learning environment, that comprehends and accepts th range of learning styles and development stages of students access to a wide variety of technologies that can assist students, develop their knowledge and encourage creativity Source: http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html Classroom Environment Positive relationship between teacher and student. Attention Retention Reproduction Motivation A variety of factors (cognitive, environmental and behavioural) can increase or decrease the amount of attention given to a behaviour. The ability to retain information (coding, rehearsing) through the observational process. The ability to reproduce a retained mental image of the behaviour. Having an incentive to imitate certain behaviour. Sources: http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html andhttp://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm Modeling appropriate behaviours by teachers and parent; this can be done through Role Play activities or the implementation of Character Education program. Using positive classroom management activities and strategies to encourage and reinforce the belief that children have the ability to succeed. Using intrinsic motivational strategies to encourage students to be successful. Setting goals: using portfolios to document the growth of a learner. Communication between teacher, student, and parent is honest and consistent. Inclusive and equitable environment where students feel safe and comfortable to be themselves. Modeling of appropriate behaviour is consistently present. Descriptive feedback is consistently given. provide a forum to discuss a wide variety of social, political, and cultural issues discovery learning and open-ended questions allow student to br creative, experiment, and explore use of logic based problems (e.g. logic puzzles, brain teasers) Source: http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Piaget's_Stages Major Themes Social interaction More Knowledgeable Other Zone of Proximal Development Lev Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory Source: http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/social-development.html and http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html Social interaction directs cognitive development. "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological)." (Vygotsky, 1978) An individual that has more knowledge about a concept, process, or task will pass it on. It is the difference between what a learner can do with guidance or without guidance. With guidance the learner will attain knowledge from either a teacher, capable peer, or artificial intelligence (computer, internet); scaffolding of knowledge will and the concept will be learned independently. Source: http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html, http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/social-development.html, and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zone_of_proximal_development Cultural Tools People use forms of communication like speech, body language, and writing to exist within their communities; the usage of these tools leads to higher level thinking skills. S caffolding entails the process of providing temporary support until assistance is no longer required (e.g. use of graphic organizers) but the process needs to build on a student's existing knowledge Reciprocal Teaching - guide on the side vs. sage on the stage: role of the teacher changes, he/she becomes a facilitator and a collaborator of knowledge which helps with the process of meaning construction for students. Learning is reciprocal. Descriptive feedback and the correct support is essential to help facilitate learning for students (Oczkus, 2003). Source: http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Reciprocal_Teaching Criteria building anchor charts for a Collaborative Inquiry are visible for students to see. Allow for differentiated instruction, this form of teaching will students options for learning. Blended learning environment, where students can learn from instructor online and face-to-face, ths gives them extra support and learning at their own pace. Respectful and trusting environment where students can approach teacher for assistnace without hesitation. Source: http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Reciprocal_Teaching Source: http://www.learning-theories.com/eriksons-stages-of-development.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erikson's_stages_of_psychosocial_development , and http://allpsych.com/psychology101/social_development.html Source: http://www.learning-theories.com/eriksons-stages-of-development.html The focus in the school setting is from stage 3 to stage 5. Provide an environment that supports creativity and critical thinking, allow students to be inquisitive (i.e. Have a Collaborative Inquiry or Projects based activity available). Provide a structure environment that is thought provoking yet supportive for student's (e.g. Use "Tribes" tenants to guide the structure of you classroom), don't want students to be stuck at a development stage. Using activities that promote trust amongst students, will help them achieve a positive solution of the 'crisis' at each stage. Source: http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_eggen_education_6/13/3456/884892.cw/index.html Using instructional strategies that illustrate the importance of understanding different points of view (e.g. Role Play, persuasive writing). Use lesson that promote social problem solving (e.g. Character Education, Role play, skits, Comic creation with visual representation). Pressure to "fit in" during the adolescent stage can be very stressful, need to provide students with the right toolkit to help them go in the right direction. Physiological Needs- food, water, shelter, clothing
Safety Needs- family security, protection
Social Needs- belonging, friendship, love
Esteem Needs- need to be a respected individual
Self-actualization- to feel complete & valid in all aspects of self, to feel confident in being oneself Source: http://www.imteachingfrench.com/?page_id=51 Source: http://two.not2.org/psychosynthesis/articles/maslow.htm Source: http://www.learning-theories.com/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs.html Classroom Environment Provide an environment that is free of prejudice, comfortable where students are respected and allowed to be creative. Using Bloom' s Taxonomy to create higher-ordered thinking questions that are engaging and allow for creativity (e.g. "Hot Seat", Social Justice in Math: http://resources.curriculum.org/secretariat/justice/index.html), this form of teaching will allow children of all learning styles to be successful. Embed instructional materials in lessons that are engaging and useful for students and instructor (e.g. Interactive Whiteboard, Document Camera, iPad, Drama Centre). Create lessons or use instructional strategies that appeal to all learning styles -auditory, visual, and kinesthetic (e.g. Dramatic production of a Fairy Tale). Source: http://www.ehow.com/info_7898671_methods-teaching-meeting-needs-students.html Take time to know your students, use a personal inventory survey to see what they are like as individuals. Based on student's physiological needs, ensure that they are coming to school with proper clothing and nourishment (possible assistance could be a breakfast or lunch program). Promote positive reinforcement and self-esteem, make students feel valued. Encourage students to be supportive of their peers, if a student is successful in area (subject or task) he or she could assist another in the class. Source: http://www.ehow.com/how_7771899_apply-maslows-hierarchy-needs-education.html Classroom Environment Be careful about seating arrangement, allow for interpersonal collaboration to occur (use horseshoe pattern or clusters). Source: http://www.learning-theories.com/gardners-multiple-intelligences-theory.html Source: http://classroomchoreography.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/multiple-intelligences.jpg Linguistic. The ability to use spoken or written words.
Logical-Mathematical. Inductive and deductive thinking and reasoning abilities, logic, as well as the use of numbers and abstract pattern recognition.
Visual-Spatial. The ability to mentally visualize objects and spatial dimensions.
Body-Kinesthetic. The wisdom of the body and the ability to control physical motion.
Musical-Rhythmic. The ability to master music as well as rhythms, tones and beats.
Interpersonal. The ability to communicate effectively with other people and to be able to develop relationships.
Intrapersonal. The ability to understand one’s own emotions, motivations, inner states of being, and self-reflection Source: http://www.learning-theories.com/gardners-multiple-intelligences-theory.html Introduce a subject through a song or a poem, to tap into the students who have the music intelligence. For linguistic intelligence learners, provide verbal explanations of concepts that invite students to think critically (e.g. debates, speeches). Allow students to work collaboratively to enhance their interpersonal skills and to hear each other's "voice" or perspective (e.g. radio plays, plays, tableaux, and podcasts). For logical-mathematical learners, provide the opportunity for games such as chess, checkers, turn math problems into logic puzzles. Source: http://www.ehow.com/how_8015195_set-up-multiple-intelligence-classroom.html For bodily-kinesthetic learners provide activities for movement such as D.P.A., acting out concepts in math, science, or social studies. For intrapersonal learners provide opportunities for reflection after a lesson/activity or in a writing task. For the visual spatial leaner, teach lessons that use images or image projection like the LCD projector or the document camera. Provide graphic organizers so that students can organize their thoughts in a visual manner. Source: http://www.ehow.com/info_12060045_multiple-intelligence-games-activities.html and http://www.ehow.com/how_8234835_implement-gardners-theory-classroom.html Make your class interactive and engaging with word walls, writing prompts, hands-on areas, and visual aids (LCD). Provide time and area for a community circle, so that students can discuss what is on going in their community or lives. Take your class outside regularly, interact with the natural world. Listen to music when doing activities, certain music can be helpful for student learning (e.g. happy music when students enter class). Allow students to bring in their own music to listen when they are doing work. use concrete props or visual aids (e.g. building blocks, graphic organizers) References Cited