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PAL-II: Reading and Writing
Transcript of PAL-II: Reading and Writing
Administered to students K-6
Norm referenced measure
First nationally normed standardized test that can be used to diagnose dysgraphia, dyslexia, oral and written language disability
Administering PAL-II: RW 30-45 minutes depending on sub-tests, 60-120 minutes if all sub-tests for a particular grade are given
Scaled and composite scores with percentile equivalent and comparison scores on other measures (i.e., PAL-II score= 10, Percentile Equivalent=50, Scores on Other Measure=100, Qualitative Description=Average)
Scaled sub-test scores also available
Properties Take-Aways Sub-tests Reading: Receptive Coding- All grades
Writing: Note-taking- 3-6 grade
Finger Sense: K-6 Very relevant to practice because it can be used to identify, progress monitor, and diagnose
Practical because it is based off skills needed to read and write
Fairly easy to administer and score, some sub-tests more difficult than others, but all but one sub-test can be scored after administering test instead of during
User guide CD provided with sub-test explanation and scoring guide pointers, as well as intervention suggestions
PAL-II provides evidence-based interventions based on score and areas of need and statistically linked to WIAT-II
Not culturally sensitive- can only use on English speakers/writers
Assesses underlying processes of reading and writing skills through 19 sub-tests and links outcomes directly with intervention linked to Weschler Individual Achievement Test-II
Sub-tests assessing skills such as phonological processing, orthographic processing, rapid naming, etc. based on sub-word, word, and text levels of language
Should only be used with native/fluent English speakers/writers
Reliability and Validity vary by sub-test with some lacking interscorer reliability (i.e., finger-sense)
Process Assessment of the Learner:
Reading & Writing Virginia Wise Berninger, 2007 References Ruthvon, N. (2004). Early Reading Assessment: A practitioner
handbook. NY:NY, Guilford.
Process assessment of the learner-second edition: Diagnostics for
reading and writing. In (2012). Pearson assessment and information.
San Antonio, TX: Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved from