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Urban Education

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Alison Schwartzbaum

on 27 April 2013

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Transcript of Urban Education

“North Miami felt comfortable. Everyone knew me. We all spoke Creole. We had fun, we grew up together and we were relaxing.” ccountability Insert picture of Alison Kiki
Attended urban public schools in Philadelphia
Taught k-6 in urban public schools Alison
Attended private Jewish day school
Taught 8th grade ELA in an urban school and 10th and 11th grade in an independent school Hi! Program Clickers Our hope is that you leave this presentation with:

1. With a more nuanced understanding of the factors that shape urban schools.

2. With an understanding of several proposed reforms intended to increase achievement and equity in American urban schools.

3. Having evaluated your personal views on the construction of urban schools and on proposed school reforms. Goal/Purpose “On the one hand, urban schools are producing academic failure at alarming rates; at the same time, they are doing this inside a systematic structural design that essentially predetermines their failure. This is where the urban school reform rhetoric has missed the mark. It has presumed that urban schools are broken. Urban schools are not broken; they are doing exactly what they are designed to do.”
(Duncan-Andrade & Morell, 2008) Thesis Thesis 1- Agree
2- Somewhat Agree
3- Somewhat Disagree
4- Disagree
5- I Don’t Know Urban Schools are failing. 1- Agree
2- Somewhat Agree
3- Somewhat Disagree
4- Disagree
5- I Don’t Know Urban schools are diverse. egregation ocial Justice Forum Orfield and Lee (2006) De facto: Residential segregation patterns Two Possible Causes "Segregation by race and ethnicity is almost always related to seriously unequal opportunities for all races, including whites, and it should be minimized."
(Orfield and Lee, 2006) “From coast to coast, indeed, in recent years, middle-class white city-dwellers have not merely fled from schools in which large numbers of Black and Hispanic children are enrolled but sometimes openly demanded that their school officials carve out new domains of pedagogic isolation to provide their children with exclusive opportunities which they believe they deserve.”
(Kozol, 2005) Segregated schools are often tense, disorderly, and socially unhappy places.
(Kozol, 2005)
“There is evidence that accountability systems with concrete goals change the behavior of school systems, at a minimum by refocusing efforts on disadvantaged students” (Rotherham, 2002). Our accountability​ system may serve as a gatekeeper that hampers some students' achievement ​
“…the increased pressure of test-based accountability, without substantial investments in capacity, is likely to aggravate the existing inequalities between low-performing and high-performing schools and students” (Elmore, 2002). High Stakes Assessment Clarified academic expectations

Disaggregated data revealed the achievement gap which forced schools to hold all students to the same academic standards No Child Left Behind’s Impact on Students http://www.doe.mass.edu/infoservices/reports/retention/.
Updated Apr. 16, 2009. Accessed December 15, 2009. District Retention Rates: Evidence of the Urban Ninth Grade Bulge No real path to college
Not enough teachers credentialed and experienced in key subjects
Not enough students ready to enroll in strong pre-collegiate courses taught at an appropriate level
No way to get the right preparation in their school regardless of their personal talent and motivation.
Teachers transfer out of schools as soon as they can
Gangs sometimes shape the environment of the community
Students have chronic health and developmental problems
Disruptive neighborhood conditions
Many other forms of inequality
(Orfield, 2009) Who do we retain? What schools do they most likely attend? http://www.doe.mass.edu/infoservices/reports/retention/ District Retention Rates by Race/Ethnicity (2007-08) Balfanz and Legters 2004, http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind08/c1/c1s6.htm, http://www.betterhighschools.org/docs/NHSC_FirstYearofHighSchool_032807_000.pdf,
“I know this kid who was the same age as me, and he dropped out because he was embarrassed. He was about to be 20 and didn’t want to graduate with a bunch of 17 and 18 year olds. I told him, I don’t care if I am 20, or 21 I keep on going.” Complicating Outside Factors 1970s-80s Integration Period
The number of white students with at least a high school diploma doubled.
The number of white students taking the SAT and the ACT doubled, and the average scores increased.
The number of Black students with at least a high school diploma tripled.
The number of Black students taking the SAT and the ACT doubled, and the average scores increased.

(Hochschild, 2003) Desegregation is associated
with improved academic
outcomes for all students "Success in life is more than just cognition: strength of motivation, an ability to act on long-term plans, and the socio-emotional regulation needed to work with others are key functions of a successful person." (Heckman, 2012)

Environments can either support or disrupt a student’s success in school. (Levinson, M. (2010). T210x E-lecture Slides) Effective school reform is multidimensional including academic success, physical health, language, mobility, summer learning, enrichment opportunities, and mental health “North Miami kids, the environment they live in--they don't know what to do. But white people have people to encourage them. I have people to encourage me--you, my family---but kids from the ghetto don't have nobody to encourage them. They have other things to do. No time for no stupid FCAT. Not even just black people--anybody in the ghetto, Hispanics, Haitians, African Americans. They aren't gonna pass the FCAT. What do they need that for? But White rich kids have somebody.” 1990s segregation is de facto, not de jure 1971 Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education 1954 Brown v. Board of Education 1 1896- Plessy v. Ferguson A Story of American Urban Schools Urban schools are an example “There is no such thing as a dysfunctional organization, because every organization is perfectly aligned to achieve the results it currently gets.”

(Heifetz, Linsky, and Grashow, 2009) De jure: Court cases and judicial decisions at the state and federal level Urban Schools “Who needs the FCAT. They (white people) are trying to stop people from achieving. They are trying to block us. We have to work twice as hard to get the same.” Urban High Schools began to retain more students who would not pass assessments

To this day, students drop out if they cannot pass the NCLB state assessments. Not Meeting State Academic Standards Segregated Neighborhood and School Kezee and North Miami Senior High
http://projects.nytimes.com/census/2010/explorer?hp De facto: Residential segregation patterns School Segregation: Causes Key Court Cases utside Factors 40% of dropouts in low–income high schools left after ninth grade vs. 27% in low–poverty schools
(Levinson, 2012)

"We know that the schools left behind have been very disproportionately black and Latino, High poverty schools and that the remedies embodied in NCLB have not repaired the inequalities. The best available scientific comparisons show that NCLB, in spite of putting intense pressure and sanctions on schools serving minority students, has made no significant change in the previous trends in test scores or in the racial achievement gaps" (Orfield, 2009). External factors, when unacknowledged and unaccounted for in schools, negatively impact student achievement. AS Rotherham (2002) argues, “good teachers, high expectations, standards, accountability, and inspiration are not enough.” Student populations in urban schools are more likely to experience external inequities and less likely to benefit from enrichment activities than their whiter, richer counterparts. Urban school reform must therefore address the positive and negative features that affect students’ success in school. Summary: schools are segregated ; our current accountability system can sets up urban schools and students for failure; and external factors, when unacknowledged and unaccounted for can schools, negatively impact student achievement

Given these constructions, what should effective educators / leaders / policymakers (yourselves included!) do? Summary Urban Schools are Failing Urban schools are diverse.

1- Agree
2- Somewhat Agree
3- Somewhat Disagree
4- Disagree
5- I Don’t Know 1- Agree
2- Somewhat Agree
3- Somewhat Disagree
4- Disagree
5- I Don’t Know “On the one hand, urban schools are producing academic failure at alarming rates; at the same time, they are doing this inside a systematic structural design that essentially predetermines their failure. This is where the urban school reform rhetoric has missed the mark. It has presumed that urban schools are broken. Urban schools are not broken; they are doing exactly what they are designed to do.”
(Duncan-Andrade & Morell, 2008)
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