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Human Population

The Bigger Picture

Michelle Arnold

on 27 April 2010

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Transcript of Human Population

Historical Background Homo sapians Michelle Arnold Evolutionary Trends Historical Background Location, Location, Location Interactions with of Species Problems Facing Populations Conservation Plans Effects on the Ecosystem Refrences *Ardipithecus ramidus is considered to be the earliest member of the
Hominoidea family. The initial fossils of this species were found in the
Middle Awash area of Ethiopia. Ardipithecus ramidus is dated to about
4.4 million years ago,
* Australopithecus afarensis lived between 4 million and 3.2 million
years ago in eastern Africa.
* Australopithecus africanus lived between 3 and 2.3 million years
ago mostly in South Africa * Homo habilis, 2.5 million years ago.
* H. erectus, 1.6 mya - 400,000 years ago
* H. neanderthalensis, 50,000 years ago
* 300,000 years ago Homo sapiens with modern
features appear. * Structural- Bipedal locomotion, Precision grip, Descent of the larynx and hyoid bone, Larger brain (typically 1,400 cm³)
* Learned Behavior- Extended periods of social learning and language skills in juvenile individuals, Increased communication
* Emphasis on tool use and technology
* Population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh water sources

* Over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human inhabitation (e.g. deserts, high mountains)

* World Population = 6.8 billion, Earth's
total area (land and water) = 510 million square kilometers 6.8 billion ÷ 510 million = 13.3 humans per km²

* Only the Earth's land area =150 million km², then human population density increases to 45.3 humans per km²

* If Antarctica is also excluded, then population density rises to 50 people per km² * Predation-Prey
* Competition
* Displacing or relocating species
* Reduction of biodiversity * Rerouting water ways
* Secreting harmful toxins into the air, water and land
* Relocating natural resources (e.g. minerals, fauna) * Toxin secretions damage ecosystems
* Unsustainable use of renewable resources
* Food sources are becoming more energy intensive
* Human densities are increasing
*Increased Population-Population conflict Positive Outlook Reality-Conclusion * Limit toxic secretions
* Localize resource use
* Manage renewable resources wisely
* Lower population growth
* Change learned behavior * Biodiversity rebounding
* Increase air, water, and land quality
* Decrease population-population conflicts
* Increase Homo sapien interactions with primary nature
* Sustainable use of natural resources * Learned behavior isn't easily changed
* Most species over-shoot carrying capacity
* Increased use of efficient, dirty energy
* Population-Population diversity
* Sex
* Economic incentives
* Limited imported/exported goods
* Protection of local resources
* WAKE UP Hall et. al., "Revisting the Limits to Growth"
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