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Module One :
Transcript of Module One :
* His teachings became the foundation of Confucianism.
* He believed that only in society a man will be able to
maximize his potential.
* For him, every individual belongs to a specific position
in society with corresponding roles attached to it.
* He believed that the right to govern belongs to
superiors over subordinates; older people over the
younger ones; men over women.
* He highlighted the value of a code of conduct for the
* He believed that men by nature are good.
Module One :
Sociology and Human Society
Lesson 1 : Philosophical Theories
About the Formation of Society
Philosophers and Their Teachings about Society
Lesson 2 :
Sociology and Its Importance
Lesson 3 :
Lesson 4 :
Four Stages of Human societies
(429 - 347 B.C.E.)
* He is one of the world's best-known philosophers.
* He was a student of Plato.
* He wrote "The Republic".
* According to him, societies are formed because of people's
interdependence on one another,therefore, formed for mutual
* He believed that specialization is the reason for and justification
of the society.
* He classified society into three classes: Rulers, Soldiers, and
(551 - 479 B.C.E.)
(384 - 322 B.C.E.)
* He is a student of Plato and the teacher of Alexander
* He wrote "Politics" wherein he described the city (polis).
* He believed that the whole (city) is more important that
its parts (family).
* He described man as a political animal by nature.
* Contrary to Plato, he thought that middle class must
rule the city.
* He believed in private ownership.
(1469 - 1527)
* He is an Italian philosopher and historian and he
wrote "The Prince".
* He is the Founder of Modern Political Science.
* He believed that a representative government is
the ideal form of government.
* For him, leaders must be both virtuous and
* For him, a good leader should also know how
and when to employ force.
(1478 - 1535)
* He wrote "Utopia" in 1516.
* He focused on politics and social organization.
* In his Utopia, he introduced the following
(1) Elimination of private property
(2) Universal nature of labor
(3) The role of moderated pleasure in social life
(4) The role of family as the microcosm of state
(1588 - 1679)
* He is an English philosopher who wrote "The
* He described absence of authority as "state of
* He offered a solution to enable man to escape
from the state of nature.
* For him, a society is the population of people
governed by a sovereign authority.
(1632 - 1704)
* He is an English philosopher and physician
and known as the Father of Classical
* He believed that the reason why men want
to abandon the ideal state of nature is due
* He strongly opposed unlimited sovereignty
Jean Jacques Rousseau
(1712 - 1778)
* He is a Swiss philosopher who wrote "The
Social Contract" and "Emile".
* He described the "state of nature" as lawless,
barbaric, and devoid of morality.
* He suggested humans to join together and
form a society by social contract.
* He opposed the idea of having a representative
form of government.
John Stuart Mill
(1806 - 1873)
* He is a British philosopher, economist, and civil
servant, and one of the proponents of
* He viewed "liberty" in his essay "On Liberty".
* He believed that the government should
interfere only when it is for the protection of
* He insisted social liberty.
Meaning of Sociology
Sociology is taken from the Latin word "socius" which means "partner or group" and the Greek word "logos" meaning "to study". Basically, it means the study of group. It is the scientific study of social interactions. It studies how people interact with one another and how such interaction affects their behavior. It is also defined as the systematic study of social life and behavior.
Importance of Sociology
Sociology serves as a tool in disseminating information on what is happening around us. Because of it, our culture is greatly enhanced and cultivated. Also, sociology can rationalize the existence of social groups as a factor in social development. Another importance of it is that it helps in the resolution of societal problems which are believed to hinder society's development.
Nature of Sociology
Sociology analyzes behavior that shapes society. It involves systematic methods of investigation and the evaluation of theories based on evidence and reason.
* Analyzes social system and population on a large
scale at a high level of abstraction.
* Focuses on social structures and organizations and
the relationship between them.
* Deals with issues such as war, problems of Third
World nations, poverty, and environmental
* Concerned with everyday human social interactions
in a small scale.
* Focuses on social interaction particularly on what
people do when they come together.
* Deals with issues like gender roles, nature of the
family, and immigration.
Branches of Sociology
It is the study of the relationship between economic activities and social life.
Sociology of Education
It is concerned with the roles and functions of the educational system in a society.
Sociology of religion
It studies the role of religion in society, specifically its practices, developments, historical backgrounds, and universal themes.
It tackles about the relationship between politics and society.
It is the study of the mutual interactions among the social organization, physical environment, and social behavior.
Sociology of the family
It studies the foundation of the family as an institution and how it relates to its environment.
It talks about abstract issues such as spirituality and community, and religion in multicultural societies.
It studies the behavior and activities of criminals, the nature and causes of crime, and the criminal justice system.
Relationship of Sociology with Other Social Sciences
Sociology and Anthropology
Both specialize in the study of society and have contributed to the development of theories but can be easily distinguished from one another.
Sociology and Economics
Both disciplines study the behavior of individuals.
Sociology and History
History records the past which people have lived. Sociologists use available historical materials to understand social and cultural changes.
Sociology and Political Science
Both disciplines study the nature of the distribution of power in a society.
Sociology and Psychology
Both disciplines are linked by the concepts of status and role.
People behind the Development of Sociology as a Science
(1858 - 1919)
* A French intellectual who
devoted himself in understanding the
stability of society
* One of his major concerns was about
the balance between regulation and
* Has his classic study entitled "Suicide" describing "fatalistic suicide" and "anomic suicide"
(1789 - 1857)
* Father of Sociology
* French Philosopher who proposed a
separate new science of society known
as “Social Physics”.
* Divided sociology into two areas: Social
Static and Social Dynamics.
* Identified 3 stages in understanding
society: Theology Stage, Metaphysical
Stage, and Scientific Stage
( 1818 - 1883)
* A philosopher, economist, and a
* Regarded private property and
capitalism as the root causes of
* Two of his most enduring legacies
are the theories: Economic
Determinism and The Dialectic
* Advanced the thesis that evolution
accounts for the development of
social and natural life.
* Known for his Social Evolution
(1864 - 1920)
* A German economist, historian,
and philosopher whose work
was the basis for Verstehen Sociology
* Interested in analyzing the meaning of
* Made mention of value-free sociology
* An organized, self-sufficient, and enduring
association of a larger number of people with
a distinct culture and shared institutions.
* A large social grouping that shares the same
geographical territory and is subject to the
same political authority and dominant cultural
* Population of people that is organized in a
cooperative manner to carry out the functions
of life, including reproduction, sustenance,
shelter, and defense.
* The system of community life in which
individuals form a continuous and regulatory
association for their mutual benefit and
protection (Frank and Wagnalls)
* Is represented by boundaries, similar government or institutional framework, and a population (Mcnall)
Sociological Theories and Perspectives of Society
Structural - functional Perspective
* The “Consensus Theory”
* Addresses the question of social
organization and how it is maintained
* Used by Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer,
and Emile Durkheim
Symbolic – interaction Perspective
* Addresses the subjective meanings of
human acts and the processes
* Directs attention to the analysis of the
interactions of persons in face-to-face
* Sees the world in terms of conflict and
* Identifies the conditions that lead to
discontent and conflict
* Introduced by Karl Marx
Concept Summary by
* This era was called as the “Dawn of Civilization”.
* Major features of agrarian society :
The use of animal-drawn plow
The greater surplus of food produced by agriculture
Money replaced barter system in trade system.
Communication and transportation were improved.
Agrarian societies produced social inequality.
Expansion of trade sparked the growth of cities
Hunting and Gathering Societies
* Humans survived primarily by hunting wild
animals and gathering wild vegetation 10000 -
12 000 years ago. Stone and wood were the
main raw materials for the making
of tools and weapons.
* They had no permanent place and personal
properties. They gathered only what would
be enough for a day or for a short period of
* Two types of kin groups: Nuclear Families and
* The division of labor was simple because it was
based on age and gender.
* Specialized positions: Headman as the political
leader and Shaman as the spiritual leader
Horticultural, Fishing, and Pastoral Societies
* The equipments of the horticultural society began to
transform a lot of hunting and gathering societies
10000 - 12 000 years ago. Horticultural society
developed a community that used simple hand
tools to raise crops.
* According to history, fishing societies came earlier
than the herdsmen
. Industrial Societies
* Used machinery powered by fuels to produce
* Tools and machines became more efficient than
muscle power of humans and animals.
* First industrial nation in the world : England
* Surpassed England’s invention in 1870 : USA
* Effects of Industrialization:
Resulted in greater concentration of people in urban areas
Inventions improved standard of living of the people.
Advanced health-related technology increased life expectancy.
* Described by Daniel Bell as a society of
technically advanced nations.
* Refers to a society characterized by the
centrality of supposed knowledge as source
* Four characteristics :
Economy go through a transition from production of goods to terms of services.
Knowledge becomes a valued form of capital.
Constructing ideas is the main way to grow economy.
Behavioral and information sciences and technologies are developed and implemented.