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Copy of Theories of Human Motivation

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Emily Brittingham

on 15 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Theories of Human Motivation

Three Needs Theory
David McClelland's
Three Needs Theory
American psychological theorist David McClelland proposed human behavior is motivated by three needs (McClellands Theory of Motivation, 2013).
The Need for Achievement
The extent to which success is valued by a person.
Individuals with a high need for achievement generally seek positions offering personal responsibility in which they can set moderately challenging goals and receive feedback on their performance. This trait is not essential in relation to management as high achievers often focus on their own accomplishments rather than working as a team or assisting others to achieve their goals (Robbins, 2013).

The Need for Power
The desire to have an impact on others or to establish or maintain personal prestige.
Individuals motivated by power have a strong urge to lead others and enjoy status and recognition. These individuals have the potential to be efficient and successful managers
(Robbins, 2013).

The Need for Affiliation
The desire for social belongingness, emotional support and praise.
Managerial decision making may be impeded by individuals motivated by affiliation due to the underlying desire for such individuals to be liked. For this reason it is assumed individuals motivated by the need for affiliation generally do not make good leaders (Robbins, 2013).

Abraham Maslow conceived the
Hierarchy of Needs, a theory of
psychological health based on the
fulfillment of human needs in
priority order, with the highest
goal being self-actualisation. (Saul McLeod, 2007)
The Hierarchy of Needs is presented as a
pyramid with the base representing
physiological needs. Needs such as food,
water and warmth ensure the human
body can function properly.
If these needs are not fulfilled
the individual will fail. (Saul McLeod, 2007)
When physiological needs are met the
individual's Safety needs take priority
in the individual's behaviour.
This tier represents the need for safety
in the individual's own health and
body, security in family, property, employment and financial security (psychetruth, 2011)
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
After Safety needs are met the individual's
priorities shift to Love & Belonging.
Maslow theorised that humans need
to love and be loved by others both
emotionally and sexually, as well as
feel a sense of belonging within social
groups (Saul McLeod, 2007)
Love & Belonging
Esteem Needs
The Esteem tier represents
Individual’s needs to feel
respected by others and by
themselves. This tier also
represents confidence, self
esteem and achievement. (Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 1943)
Self-Actualisation
To achieve Self-Actualisation, Maslow believed
the individual needed to understand their true
potential and fulfill it; to achieve all one could in order
to be all that one could.

Maslow believed that to truly understand this highest need, the individual needs to not only achieve the
previous needs but master them. (Saul McLeod, 2013)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow's
Hierarchy of Needs
Theories Of Human Motivation
Motivation is an internal process that elicits action from an individual towards a desired goal. Motivation invokes and assists in the controlling and sustaining of actions that assist in achieving the goal; which could be as simple as eating food to eleviate hunger or as complex as to understand and fulfilling one's own potential as a person.

Psychologists have long wished to understand what motivates us as people and have proposed several theories to help us understand precisely what drives us.

In the following presentation we will touch on three popular theories of human motivation; David McClelland's 'Three Needs Theory', Abraham Maslow's 'Hierarchy of Needs' and Victor Vroom's 'Expectancy Theory'.


References:

1. Saul McLeod, 2007 updated 2013, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Simple Psychology, viewed 20 August 2013
<http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html>.
2. Psychetruth, June 22 2011, Expanded Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Human Needs, Self Actualization, Humanistic Psychology, viewed 21st August 2013, <
3. Huffington Post, Maslow's Hierarchy of Corporate Needs, 15th August 2013, viewed 22nd August 2013, <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/abhishek-seth/maslows-hierarchy-of-corp_b_3756841.html>
4. 220px-abraham_Maslow.jpg [Image] in Carolmapley58, viewed September 8th 2013, <http://i2.wp.com/carolmapley58.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/220px-abraham_maslow.jpg?fit=1000%2C1000>.
5. HierarchyOfNeeds_sm.png [Image] in A Question Of Happiness, viewed September 8th 2013 <http://www.unity.org/publications/unity-magazine/articles/question-happiness>.
6. icon_foodshelter.jpg [Image] in Emergency Food and Shelter Program, viewed September 8th 2013 <http://www.unitedwaygcr.org/tn/CommunityImpact/EmergencyFoodShelter.aspx>
7. home-builder-north-carolina.jpeg [Image] in Finding the Perfect Family Home, viewed September 8th 2103 <http://www.proudmummy.com.au/home-garden/finding-the-perfect-family-home/>
8. Vulnerability.jpg [Image] in The Value of Vulnerability, viewed September 8th 2013, <http://trynaturalmedicine.wordpress.com>
9. 1318887047-1315656140-SelfEsteem1.jpg [Image] in Self Esteem, viewed September 8th 2013, <http://www.myriamdurante.com.br/in/ver_artigo.php?id=45>
10. Potential.jpg [Image] in Ten Tips to Decrease Stress So That You Reach Your Potential, viewed September 8th 2013, <http://www.poliquingroup.com/ArticlesMultimedia/Articles/PrinterFriendly.aspx?ID=917&lang=EN>
11. motivation.jpg [Image] in What's Your Motivation?, viewed September 13th 2013, <http://fitlanthropist.com/2010/02/whats-your-motivation/>
12. Robbins, DeCenzo, Coulter & Woods 2013, Management: The essentials, [ebook], Pearson Australia, viewed 28th August 2013, <http://online.vitalsource.com/books/9871486007271/page/270>
13. McClelland’s Theory of Needs 2013, Management Study Guide, viewed 28th August 2013, <http://www.managementstudyguide.com/mcclellands-theory-of-needs.htm>
14. Tosi, H & Pilati, M 2011,Managing organizational behaviour: individual, teams, organizations and management, 5th edn, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK
15. achievement.jpg [image] in Collegiate Commitment to Bridge Achievement Gap, viewed 28th August 2013, <http://www.psmag.com/business-economics/collegiate-commitment-to-bridge-achievement-gap-11147/>
16. affiliation.jpg [image] in The Selangor and Federal Territory Association for the Mentally Handicapped, viewed 28th August 2013, <http://mentallyhandicapped-samh.org/ver2.0/index.php/affiliation/overseas-affiliation>
17. power.jpg [image] in Project Manager, A Real Contact Attorney Story, viewed 28th August 2013 <http://www.contractattorneycentral.com/temp-document-reviewer-to-permanent-senior-ediscovery-project-manager-a-real-contract-attorney-story-part-2>
18. Metzger 2007, Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology , viewed 15th September 2013 <http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ehost/detail?sid=e8e05eaa-e74c-4e1e-a547-4f06f592964c%40sessionmgr4&vid=1&hid=12&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=bth&AN=27265558>
Credibility of Sources
All resources used in this presentation are deemed to be credible based on the following criteria:
Information used has been checked to be current and is able to be validated through other sources.
Articles were selected where views were represented as facts rather than opinions.
Articles were selcted where author’s credentials were displayed.
Consideration has been taken of domain names, URL’s & search engine ranking (Metzger, 2007).

(PS Mag, 2013).
(Contract Attorney Central, 2013).
(Selangor & Federal Territory Association for the Menatally Handicapped, 2013.)
(McClellands Theory of Motivation, 2013.)
'motivation' <http://fitlanthropist.com/2010/02/whats-your-motivation/>
220px-abraham_Maslow.jpg <http://i2.wp.com/carolmapley58.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/220px-abraham_maslow.jpg?fit=1000%2C1000>
HierarchyOfNeeds_sm.png <http://www.unity.org/publications/unity-magazine/articles/question-happiness>.
icon_foodshelter.jpg <http://www.unitedwaygcr.org/tn/CommunityImpact/EmergencyFoodShelter.aspx>
'home-builder-north-carolina' <http://www.proudmummy.com.au/home-garden/finding-the-perfect-family-home/>
'Vulnerability' <http://trynaturalmedicine.wordpress.com>
'1318887047-1315656140-SelfEsteem1' <http://www.myriamdurante.com.br/in/ver_artigo.php?id=45>
'Potential' <http://www.poliquingroup.com/ArticlesMultimedia/Articles/PrinterFriendly.aspx?ID=917&lang=EN>
Conclusion
The three theories touched on in our presentation all approach the origins of human motivation from different perspectives; each are unique and hold value in a variety of contexts.

Three Needs Theory focuses on personal motivation but often looks externally to others with the individual seeking to impact upon others and receive feedback.

Maslow's Hierarchy is more inward in focus, with the individual progressing beyond the basic needs before creating a sense of security that enables the individual to fulfil higher needs like love and personal fulfilment.

Expectancy Theory sees the individual weighing their contributions to tasks against their expected outcomes and the value placed upon perceived rewards.
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