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Teaching Strategies: Clinical Teaching and Psychomotor Skill

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Karen Paguia Miran

on 14 August 2015

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Transcript of Teaching Strategies: Clinical Teaching and Psychomotor Skill

TEACHING STRATEGIES: Clinical Teaching and Psychomotor Skills
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi

 Is designed to provide students with opportunities to have actual contact and interaction with patients or clients
 Application or practice of what is learned in the classroom, community and nursing skills laboratory with its simulated environment to real-life settings.
 Clinical instructor is present to guide and support the student.

Show academic excellence and clinical expertise
Have concern and commitment to the nursing profession


 Requires learning by doing
 Students are guided by the teachers in acquiring knowledge and learning nursing skills and in the formulation of NCPs and expectations upon completion of the activity
 Take place in the laboratory, hospital, community, field practice, industry, schools, health care agencies, government and nongovernment organizations

To improve and maintain a high standard of clinical instruction the teacher SHOULD

1. Diagnose the student’s needs, interests and abilities.
This gives direction for the teacher to develop a plan for teaching
2. Set objectives and select content.
Selecting materials appropriate to the students needs and interests.
3. Prepare areas for learning and select appropriate teaching strategies.
After establishing objective, teacher selects which clinical areas and techniques will help students achieve their goals
4. Plan instructional units and make lesson plans-
Organizing information about individual students objectives, materials, and techniques, into a resource unit that serve as reference for the teacher as she does her work from day to day


5. Motivate students in guided learning activities.
Techniques that will stir the students interests and increase their desire to learn.
6. Tasks that relate to plans focus on measuring, evaluating, grading and reporting student’s performance and progress
7. Put up plans for follow up.
Lessons that on material that the students have not learned well as shown by the results of evaluation should be followed up and monitored.



A. Traditional Model
 Oldest and most common
 Clinical instructor has the sole responsibility of instruction, supervision and evaluation for a group of 8-10 students
 Faculty Is on site
 Has maximal control of both learning and evaluation
B. Faculty-directed Independent Experience Model
 Used in community based settings- in a large geographic area
 Clinical Faculty is offsite- miles away from the students, contact is made through cellphones and or periodic visits
 Examples are school nursing, clinic, out patient, ambulatory care centers, day care centers, orphanages, health care agencies

Models of Clinical Teaching
C. Collaborative Model
 Addresses cost issues related to clinical instruction when the student-faculty ratio is high.
 Hospital staff and clinical faculty share the teaching role.
 Staff nurse is expected to be knowledgeable about:
nursing programs and its curriculums
concepts to be learned
procedures to be taught
teaching-learning strategies to be shared
methods of evaluation
theoretical foundations for clinical nursing education

a) Clinical Teaching Associate
b) Clinical Teaching Partner Model
c) Clinical Educator/Paired Model

D. Preceptor Model
 1:1 Ratio 1 student to 1 Staff nurse
 Provides onsite clinical instruction to students
 Serves as a Role model

Related Learning Experiences (RLE)
or Laboratory-
Skinner 1968
 Vital to the learning of motor skills or skills acquisition
 Aim for modeling: to have a pattern, guide, or example which can be imitated.
 CONSTANT PRACTICE is important for the retention and transfer of knowledge

Richardson 1969
 Use of Visualization is an important factor in improving skills performance
 Seeing yourself in your mind performing the procedures
 Improves performance and develops internal readiness
 Synonymous to. Mental practice, mental imagery, mental rehearsal and guided imagery

These skills involve motor dexterity, coordination and movement
The focus is on physical and kinesthetic forms of learning.
Performed in the process of caring for patients
Some examples of psychomotor nursing skills are taking blood pressure, putting in intravenous lines, administering injections, taking temperature and mixing insulins in the same syringe.
Nurses need to learn these so that it becomes second nature.
The hands on nature of the nursing practice in the nursing environment.
Action oriented learning and requires neuromuscular coordination.
Promotes patient healing and comfort.
Are involved in moving, operating or handling machines, equipment, mechanical parts and even body parts.
1. Imitate-Observe a skill and attempt to repeat it, or see a finished product and attempt to replicate it while attending to an exemplar.
Attempt, copy, duplicate, imitate, mimic

2. Manipulate- Perform the skill or produce the product in a recognizable fashion by following general instructions rather than observation.
Complete, follow, play, perform, produce

3. Precision- Independently perform the skill or produce the product, with accuracy, proportion, and exactness; at an expert level.
Achieve automatically, excelexpertly, perform masterfully

4. Articulation- Modify the skill or product the product to fit new situations; combinemore than one skill in sequence with harmony and consistency.
Adapt, alter, customize, originate

5. Naturalization- Completion of one or more skills with ease and making the skill automatic with limited physical or mental exertion.
Naturally, perfectly

 Rating scale between 0-5 or descriptors
 Measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution


1. Demonstration Phase- Watch and learn
 Crucial phase where instructor must smoothly, skillfully, and successfully demonstrate the procedure step by step which the students must be able to see and hear clearly.

2. Guided Practice Phase
 Explore and manipulate the equipment right after the demonstration.
 Feedback should be given immediately to reinforce good behavior and eliminate errors

3. Mastery Phase-Final Phase
 Is skilled, smooth, and dexterous.
 Requires continuous rehearsal and practice to be acquired and maintained.

Lewis 1971; Gudmundsend 1975
 Bringing back “ART” into the practice of nursing can only be done if the procedures are properly, and smoothly executed and the equipments and machines are dexterously handled

Benner 1984
 Used Dreyfuss model( 1981) of skills acquisition in describing the development of nursing competencies
a) Freshmen are in the novice stage of skills acquisition who follow procedural steps and rules rigidly
b) New graduates are at the advanced beginner stage who possess acceptable/competent levels of performance and critical thinking skills
c) Practicing nurses are experts whose performance is fluid flexible and highly proficient. They have incorporated clinical experiences and mastered skills

Keiffer and Eaton 1984
 Recommended incorporating visualization experiences into the teaching of nursing students on how to prepare and give injections in addition to the traditional method of teaching.
 Boosts confidence

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