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Public Defense_Katrien Verveckken
Transcript of Public Defense_Katrien Verveckken
A cognitive-functional analysis Promotor: prof. dr. Nicole Delbecque Katrien Verveckken 1 Binominal quantifiers Introduction 2 A cognitive-functional analysis 3 Conceptual persistence Quantifying Nouns QNs display a quantifying potential in addition to their lexical meaning Binominal Quantifiers BQs constitute a non-canonical way of expressing quantification (Langacker 1991) montón 'heap'
aluvión 'flood' un
llamadas Grammar is intrinsically meaningful, iconic and to a large extent usage-based analysis of the semantic and pragmatic uses of the BQ in actual contexts Methodology A corpus-based analysis:
exhaustive and representative* samples from the online synchronic (CREA) and diachronic (CORDE) corpora of the Real Academia Española CREA CORDE Corpus de referencia del español actual Corpus diacrónico del español cf. lexical persistence (Hopper (1991))
cf. subjectification (Langacker (2006), Traugott (2010)) the conceptual image or image-schematic structure activated by the QN (partially) persists in its grammaticalized or functional uses,
and directs its further developments in many ways Un país tradicionalmente parado, se ponía súbitamente en movimiento y experimentaba en primavera una inesperada floración de tipos y de ideas nuevas, algunas de las cuales madurarán y darán fruto en el otoño e invierno siguientes. UN ALUVIÓN DE nuevos negocios, y nuevos empresarios, desconocidos meses atrás, parece inundar de repente la escena nacional, relegando a los políticos a las páginas interiores de los periódicos.
‘A country which was traditionally at a standstill got suddenly on the move and experienced in springtime an unexpected flowering of types and new ideas, some of which will come to fruition and bear fruits in the following fall or winter. A FLOOD OF new companies, and new businessmen, which only some months before were unknown, seems to suddenly inundate the national scene, relegating the politicians to the inside pages of the newspapers.’ E.g. aluvión de 'flood of' Diachrony the identification of the head Grammaticalization of BQs Theoretical challenges A constructional network model BQs are involved in a process of grammaticalization (GR) (Bosque 2007, Di Tullio & Kornfeld 2008) “(t)he process whereby lexical material in highly constrained pragmatic and morpho-syntactic contexts is assigned grammatical function, and once grammatical, is assigned increasingly grammatical, operator-like function” (Traugott 2003: 645) Definition Cross-linguistic evidence English QN: Brems 2007, Traugott 2007, Trousdale 2010
Typological studies: Koptjevskaja-Tamm 2009 The QN shifts from 'head' to 'quantifier' status
(cf. Brems 2007) 'a heap' 'of books' 'a lot of' 'people' Observé una silueta componiendo una pila de libros y reconocí el perfil enjuto y nervioso de Fermín en plena concentración. Como anochece hacia las cinco de la tarde, y nunca salíamos a vender a oscuras, las noches se nos hacían largas. Menos mal que iba provisto de una pila de libros comprados en la librería (…). Para ella, todas las autoridades presentes en el acto, con uniforme y sin él, no éramos más que un hatajo de arribistas y traidores. e.g. un desastre de película 'a disaster of a movie'
e.g. una maravilla de mujer 'a wonder of a woman' the quantifying reading is backgrounded
QN primarily serves to modify (or specify the type of) N2
cf. the expressive binominal construction Challenge 1
Complex frequency pattern synchronic distribution of uses The usage-based approach foresees a causal relation between high frequency and GR (Bybee 2003) vs. corpus data only two high-frequency items 0,75 0,88 1 0,82 0,73 0,98 0,68 0,21 0,48 Challenge 2
Directionality of the changes Pathway of changes traced for BQs in English
(Traugott 2008a, 2008b): vs. diachronic corpus analysis Formal persistence Semantic persistence the analogical extension towards new N1s the analogical extension towards new N2s BQ remains analyzable BQ allows for modification of N1 BQ allows for Collocational pattern of hatajo de over time Clustering of QNs per domain, 15th century (Corpus del español) ...a theoretical challenge: (1) un montón de libros 'a heap of books' [Det. N1] [Prep. N2] N1 = head (2) un montón de amigas 'a lot of friends' [Det. N1] [Prep. N2] cf. substitution of [un montón de] by [muchas] [[Det. N1 Prep] N2] However, Un aludSG de cartasPL invadióSG su despacho.
'An avalanche of letters invaded his office.' verb agreement with N1 possible Basic cognitive-functional tenet: A cognitive-functional analysis of BQs: the development of the BQ is related to the communicative needs of the speaker importance attributed to the semantics of the BQ BQs as a specific way to construe the quantity assessment of N2,
to profile a set of N2-entities > > the conceptual motivation of the morphosyntactic make-up of BQs un montón de
muchas amigas 'a heap/lot of friends'
'many' > the iconicity principle: diagrammatic iconicity in BQs Morphosyntactic and semantic coding Conceptual persistence Definition: Further, the expression of quantity inheres in the source semantics of the QN Head Quantifier Premodifier - montón de 'heap of'
- (la) mar de 'sea of' (CORDE 2331 occ., CREA 1400 occ.) (CORDE 2232 occ.) Challenge 3
Tendency towards persistence (no phonological attrition as in 'alotta' or 'helluva') verb/anaphoric agreement with N1 > both conceptually driven Synchrony Pathways of schematization Co-selection patterns Det N1 Prep N2 Diachronic construction grammar low-frequency items grammaticalize by analogy to their more frequent structural relatives cf. Hoffmann's (2004) account of complex prepositions - analogical thinking at different constructional levels cf. constructional network model for the development of degree modifiers in English (Traugott 2007, 2008a, 2008b; Trousdale 2010) - - 4 constructional levels 1 macro-construction 2 meso-construction 3 micro-construction 4 construct partitive construction, degree modifier construction occ. 1 occ. 2 occ. x [a bit/lot of] [a kind/sort of] [a bit of] [a lot of] [a kind of] [a sort of] e.g. - A constructional network model for BQs in Spanish Step I Step II Step III Step IV Step V pragmatic inference of quantity arise in specific discourse contexts of
montón de Pues que assi es, ¿pora que traballare de aplegar grant monton de paraulas en contarte la manzilla de aquesta muyt suzia et pudient amistança et conueniencia de pactos que los romanos la hora firmaron con los sannites? (1376) with repetition, the association between montón de and quantity assessment becomes entrenched from the beginning of the 16th C, pragmatic inferences of quantity(/quality) assessment arise in specific discourse contexts of other, less frequent, QNs (mar de, letanía de, hatajo de) (construct-level) (micro-level) (construct-level) with repetition, these associations (e.g. mar de and quantity(/quality assessment) become entrenched (micro-level) every 'new' micro-construction strengthens the association between the binominal construction and the expression of quantity/quality assessment Step VI in the 19th C, the abstract binominal quantifier construction emerges (meso-level) (macro-level) The constructional network model revisited 1 the analogical model not either quality assessment or quantity assessment, but the expression of co-extension (between N1 and N2) Basic tenet in cognitive semantics: meaning is emergent, linguistic items get their final interpretation in context (Paradis 2011) a difference in form entails a difference in meaning Construction of meaning in BQs QN-related conceptual images (or image-schematic structures) the conceptual facets display degrees of schematization the conceptual image comprises a set of conceptual facets the context determines which (set of) conceptual facet(s) is profiled in particular instances e.g. conceptual image of aluvión de e.g. aluvión de vs. alud de El político recibe críticas. un aluvión / alud de 'The politician receives a flood/avalanche of criticism.' focus on source of N2
the consequences are reversible
possibly gradual arrival of N2
multiple source of N2 focus on drastic impact of N2
the consequences are irreversible
immediate arrival of N2
single source of N2 > sudden, unexpected appearance of N2
> abruptness of rise in number un aluvión de QN-related co-selection patterns conceptually and discourse-pragmatically motivated Fluctuation in four co-selection patterns: N1-determiner Premodifying ADJ N2 Verb agreement However, the formal persistence is only partial: e.g. variation in the premodification pattern of [aluvión de] > premodification is marginal
> restriction to: intensifying ADJs
ADJs profiling specific facet of conceptual image QN-related to a certain extent Conclusion Conceptual persistence Gradual phenomenon Unpredictable phenomenon Two-way analogical discourse pressure Persistence, a matter of degree depending on whether the relation of the QN with its source frame is a metaphorical, a metonymic or simply an implicit one ‘Ya no era sólo el padre Antonio el que hablaba descaradamente de “libertad”, de amor, de caridad y de pureza de intenciones. De repente, un aluvión de curas nuevos planteaban soluciones nunca oídas hasta aquellos momentos. A las 9 horas, tres médicos del cuerpo de sanidad militar comenzaron a atender las seis líneas habilitadas del teléfono 91-395-54-85. Sin embargo, el aluvión de llamadas desbordó todas las previsiones, por lo que Defensa reforzó el servicio con otros siete facultativos más, (…). > importance of the N2 and the context! Unpredictability of CIP A two-way analogical discourse pressure The interaction between persistence and syntagmatic analogy results in the mutual accommodation between QN and context: context co-determines the degree of CIP the kind of profile the speaker wants to convey of the N2-entities guides the choice of N1 N1 imposes an image-schematic structure on N2 Main contributions of the present investigation: the GR of BQs in Spanish can best be accounted for by a constructional network model the complex interaction between conceptual persistence and analogy plays a major role in the synchronic functional organization as well as in the development of BQs the GR of BQs in Spanish yields the association between the binominal pattern and primarily quantity-oriented co-extensiveness BQ's not only serve to single out a set of N2s, but also systematically add a qualifying component to quantity assessment N2 = head un alud de (this development is possibly speeded up by high frequency and early GR of montón de) importance of montón de is downtoned syntagmatic analogy prevails over paradigmatic analogy 2 meaning of the schematic BQ N1 develops combinatorial preferences The interaction between persistence and paradigmatic analogy results in the clustered-structure of semantically-related N1s and N2s: within the QN-paradigm, QNs evolve around semantically similar domains the clusters of semantically related N2s reflect the source semantics of N1 In other words, conceptual persistence constrains 'blind' paradigmatic analogy 'a heap of years'
'a bunch of problems'
'a flood of phone calls' usually categorizes a external entity X (todas las autoridades) (3) the levels of schematization in the QN's conceptual image correspond to different degrees of metaphorization in
of Prep N Prep >>> in proof
fear of ‘It was no longer only Father Antonio who spoke frankly of “freedom”, of love, of charity and the pureness of intentions. Suddenly, a flood of new priests set out solutions that had never been heard of before.’ ‘At 9 o’clock, three doctors from the military health force started to operate the six telephone lines supplied for 91-395-54-85. Nevertheless, the flood of phone calls exceeded all expectations. That’s why the Department of Defense reinforced the service with another seven physicians, (…).’ ‘Because that is how it is, why try so hard to gather a big heap of words while telling you about the dishonor of that very dirty and powerful friendship and the convenience of pacts that the Romans then signed with the Samnites?’ 'To her, all the authorities assisting at the funeral, with and without uniform, we were nothing more than a bunch (lit. herd) of careerists and traitors.' ‘As it gets dark about five p.m., and we never went out to sell books in the dark, the nights were getting longer. Fortunately I was provided with a lot/pile of books bought at the bookshop (…).’ ‘I noticed a silhouette compiling a pile of books and recognized the gaunt and nervous profile of Fermín in deep concentration.’