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Transportation of Fresh Horticultural Crops

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by

courtney jallo

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of Transportation of Fresh Horticultural Crops

Transportation of Fresh Horticultural Crops
Transportation:
Moving produce from the site of
production
to the site of
sales
The best transportation mode fits the
product

perishability
and the
distance to market
Refrigerated
transport is best for delivery to markets
more than a few hours
away
Refrigeration is critical for successful long distance shipping
Maintain the
Cold Chain

What is the
Cold Chain
?
A
Cold Chain
is a temperature-controlled supply chain
Common in the
food
and
pharmaceutical
industries and also in some
chemical
shipments
Pre-cool
trailers and marine containers to the desired carrying temperature before loading
Turn off the reefer unit during loading
Maintaining the
Cold Chain
Maintaining the
Cold Chain
Maintaining the
Cold Chain
Stow only produce that has already been
cooled
Stow produce
securely
to avoid shifting during transport
Maintaining the
Cold Chain
Maintaining the
Cold Chain
Use
like containers
to avoid injuring produce
Mixed loads
What is a
Mixed Load
?
A mixed load refers to different commodities that are stored or transported together.
It is important to
separate
the different commodities. For example, you could use a container that carries
frozen
,
refrigerated
and
dry
items in sections separated by moveable bulkheads.
If not controlled correctly, mixed loads can result in:
quality loss
for foods stored at the wrong temperature
food safety issues
for seafood, pre-cut produce and ready-to-eat products
Temperature
Ethylene
Odor
Moisture
Temperature
Ethylene
Odor
Moisture
There are
4 major factors
to control when transporting mixed loads
Correctly Transporting
Mixed Loads
Refrigerated trailers and containers circulate the refrigerated air differently:
Mixed Loads:
Top-Air Trailers
Top
-Air Trailers
Bottom
-Air Trailers
Mixed Loads:
Bottom-Air Containers
Mixed Loads
Cartons for road and marine transport require different
venting
Stack boxes to create
horizontal
airflow
Use Temperature Recorders
Place three temperature monitors:
Inside
the
first pallet
near the front bulkhead
This helps detect any occurrences of short cycling of refrigerated air
Do not place
temperature recorders
directly
on trailer walls**
Note: Placing recorders on walls may result in elevated readings that do not accurately reflect the air temperature in the load space
Move produce carefully to the selling place,
avoiding rough roads
if possible
Unload transport vehicles in a
shaded
or
refrigerated loading dock

Air moves down the entire length of the load in
ventilation channels
created during the stowing process.

Cartons must be strong enough to
support the weight
of the offset cartons above, and be vented on all four sides.
Air is forced through the floor space
under the load
and
up through the cargo
.

This type of airflow provides the most
even temperature
management for chilled cargo.
Inside
a pallet
near the center
of the load
This is where product heating is most likely to occur
On the
outside
rear face of the
last pallet
at eye level
-->If only one temperature recorder is being used, place it here
This records temperature at the farthest point from the reefer unit
Lesson Outline
By the end of this lesson, students will learn that:
avoiding
delays
, careful
handling
, and maintaining the
cold chain
are crucial when transporting fresh produce

refrigerated
transport is best for delivery to markets
more than a few hours
away

temperature
,
odor
,
ethylene
, and
moisture
are 4 factors that need to be controlled for when transporting
mixed loads
Think about the fruits and vegetables that farmers
in your area grow.

Which fruits and vegetables would be appropriate to transport
via pick up trucks?
via refrigerated trucks?
via ships?
via planes?
Root vegetables, which are less perishable, would be appropriate to transport via
ships
.

Leafy vegetables, which are more perishable, would be appropriate to transport via
refrigerated trucks
or
plane
(for international markets).
What do you think might happen when the cold chain is broken? (Recall what you learned in the cooling lesson.)
Is this a good combination for transport? Why/why not?
No because bananas produce ethylene, and lettuce is sensitive to ethylene.
Would this be a good combination for transport?
Why or why not?
No, the onions will make the rest of the produce smell like onions.
Is this a good combination for transport?
Why/why not?
Is this a good combination for transport? Why/why not?
No because blackberries need to be kept chilled whereas bananas do not.
No because leafy greens will
lose water
, thereby creating a moist environment for potatoes, which need to be kept in a
dry
place.
Think about farmers in your area.
How would you evaluate the ways in which they
transport their produce?

What are they doing well? What could be improved?
What, if any, obstacles are there for improving transport?
Photos: Jeff Brecht
Photos: Jeff Brecht
Photos: Jeff Brecht
These containers stack together easily, and will protect produce from injury.
These containers do not fit together well, and are unstable when they are stacked. Produce is likely to get injured.
Photo: Jeff Brecht
Photos: Jeff Brecht
Photo: Steven Sargent
Photo: Eleni Pliakoni
Photo: Steven Sargent
Photo: Ivanna Verjarano
Photo: Lisa Kitinoja
Photo: Jeff Brecht
Photo: Jeff Brecht
Photo: Steven Sargent
Photo: Jeff Brecht
Photo: Jeff Brecht
Photos: Steven Sargent
Photo Credit: Jeff Brecht
Photo: Jeff Brecht
Photos: Jeff Brecht
Activity
Why?
Hint!
Final Activity
Created by Kelsey Barale, Courtney Jallo & Lina Yamashita, UC Davis
Adapted from material by Jef Brecht
Full transcript