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Transcript of Brazilian Culture
Religion: God is Brazilian
Brazil was officially Catholic from the arrival of the Portuguese until the end of the monarchy
Because it was the official language, Catholic priests were received a salary from the government, which involved them directly with politics
No longer the official religion but still has a hold on Brazilian politics (abortion is still illegal in Brazil)
During this time period, practicing any other religion was declared illegal
When the republic was founded Church and State became separate, however it is still the dominant religion
Over 80% of Brazilians claim to be Catholic
African slaves were forbidden from practicing their own religion- disguised their deities as Catholic saints
Native Indians worshiped Catholic saints alongside their spirits and deities
BACK TO THE BASICS...
The word means "dance in honor of the gods"
Started as a mixture of different African religions (Yoruba, Fon, Ewe and Bantu)
It officially originated in Salvador, Bahia but origins can be traced back to the earliest days of slave trade
It eventually incorporated aspects of Catholicism over time- each of the African divinities (orixas) corresponded with a Catholic saint
They believe in one all powerful god- Oludumaré
Every person has their own orixa which controls their destiny and acts as a protector
Music and dance are important parts of Candomblé ceremonies. Specially choreographed dances are performed by worshipers to enable them to become possessed by the orixas.
This Afro-Brazilian religion has kept most of the African traditions in tact
“In sum, the country’s cuisine is a creative blend of the four groups of people that make up its population: Indians, Africans, Portuguese, and immigrants”
“Brazilian food, like its population, is a blend of the numerous groups that make up the country.”
"Many of the [Brazilian] foods come from the native indians that populated the territory when it was discovered by the Portuguese."
National Food & Drinks
Some things you need to know...
= The (plural form)
= it is
= not him
= thank you
por favor não
= please no
= you're welcome
café da manhã
-used in a variety of ways (flour-farinha de mandioca, meal, etc.).
-Other types of roots
“A huge influence of Brazilian cuisine came with the importation of African slaves.”
The Portuguese introduced many new foods, drinks, and cooking methods to Brazil when they colonized the country.
Pajes- shamans offer spiritual guidance and act as healers
They use local plants and mingle their therapeutic and magic qualities to heal
The shamans reach a state of connection with the "essence" of the forest and communicate with the spirit world through a mystical trance
Ceremonies- singing, dancing, miming the qualities of the supernatural forces they want to invoke, usually spirits of forest, natural elements, or dead ancestors
some Pajes consider themselves Catholic (Encantaria)
Pajelança is often combined with Catholicism along with other Afro-Brazilian religions and Spiritualism
Spiritualism in Brazil was inspired by Allan Kardec
It arrived in Brazil in 1865
It combines Positivism and Mysticism via the services of a medium
Brazil has the largest number of spiritualists worldwide, especially in the middle classes (2.3 mill)
They put a great deal of weight on charitable deeds and believe in reincarnation guiding the spirit of the departed to a more elevated plane of existence
-A thick, stew made with black
beans, vegetables, and many types of meat.
-Often served with toasted Manioc flour, rice, and vegetables.
-Typically served in restaurants on Wednesdays and Saturdays.
-In homes, it is either served to overnight guests or friends and family over the weekend.
-Brazil's national cocktail.
-an alcoholic beverage made with crushed ice, sugar, lime/lemon juice, and cachaca.
-Cachaca is a distilled spirit made from fermented sugarcane juice.
-Additional varieties of fruits can be added to caipirinha as well.
It blends African religions with Catholicism, Spiritism, and considerable indigenous lore. Umbanda is related to, and has many similarities with, other Afro-Brazilian religions like Candomblé and Quimbanda.
It is thought that Umbanda originated in Rio de Janeiro and surrounding areas in the early 20th century
Umbanda mythology has its own set of divinities set up in a hierarchy- each are led by a Catholic saint of orixa
Entities or "guides" of this religion include old black slaves(pretos velhos), caboclos from the forest, mischievous spirits(exus), streetwise women (pomba-giras), and the spirits of children
Alters are decorated with Christ, Our Lady, Catholic saints, orixas, caboclos, pretos velhos, candles, flowers, and a Brazilian flag
-Brazil's national soda.
-Made with extract from guarana berries.
-It is very high in caffeine
-Most popular brand is Guarana Antartica.
Customs and Traditions
-One of Brazil's national beverages (Brazil is a world producer of coffee).
-It is very strong, and taken in small doses, much like espresso.
-Brazilians often have many coffee breaks throughout their day.
-Workplaces have coffee servers available to all employees.
-Coffee is traditionally served to guests of businesses and the government.
-They introduced the use of sugar in desserts (e.g., pastries).
-Wheat, dairy products, and coffee were brought and popularized in Brazil.
-They also brought many North African styles of food, such as dried fruits.
-Many Portuguese found themselves having to replace normal ingredients with local ones.
-When African slaves were brought into Brazil via the slave trade, they brought their cooking styles along with them.
-Most plantation owners used slaves to run their kitchens.
-Coconut milk and dende (palm oil) was often used and as a result, popularized by the slaves.
-Many different kinds of food other than those of traditional Brazil can be found due to immigrants that have settled all across Brazil (especially in the big cities) over the centuries.
-Brazil has received most of their immigrant population from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.
Indigenous tribes and people of mixed Indian-Portuguese ancestry account for most, if not all, of the population here. The cuisine of this region reflects that.
Bombom de Cupuaçu: A milk chocolate–covered bonbon made from condensed milk and cupuaçu.
Pimenta: Pungent peppers bottled in oil.
Surubim: An Amazon-specific fish often grilled and served with rice and pirão.
Tacacá: A soup made from tucupi broth, salted dry jumbo prawns, jambu, and some tapioca gum.
Food here is characterized by African influences due to the slaves brought into this region to work in the sugarcane plantations. The state of Bahia is a popular representation of North East cuisine.
*Bahia cuisine: an improvisation of traditional African, indigenous, and Portuguese dishes made with local ingredients.
-Malagueta chili peppers
Acarajé: black-eyed pea fritters
Bobo de camarao: shrimp stew, made with manioc, coconut milk, and dendê oil.
Bolo de Aipim: manioc and coconut cake
The river fish from the Pantanal, the beef jerky–like carne seca, and the starchy banana da terra plantains are the best-known ingredients representing this region.
-Arroz com pequi: seasoned rice and chicken.
Carne Seca com Banana Verde: Sun-dried meat with onions, garlic,
and tomatoes and served with green bananas.
Home to many popular and diverse cities. The cuisine here includes traditional Brazilian food as well as food from other countries.
Feijoada: a heavy black bean and meat stew
Pastel de Camarão: A Brazilian turnover made with shrimp.
Picanha: "A cut of beef common in Brazil but difficult to find elsewhere. It's technically top sirloin cap with a fatty layer on top. This cut of meat requires no marination other than being rolled in rock salt. It's skewered and grilled."
Tutu de Feijão: A black bean dish made with garlic, sausage, bacon pieces, and toasted manioc flour.
*It is not uncommon to see restaurants serving non-native dishes such as sushi and pizza here, due to the cultural diversity and popularity of the cities in this region.
This region shows a heavier influence from immigrants of European origin, which reflects on the cuisine.
Arroz de Carreteiro: Garlic, onions, and rice are fried in oil with small pieces of hydrated charque (the South American version of jerky).
Barreado: Beef is cooked with tomato and onions, garlic, and bacon, which is then served with rice, plantains, and farofa.
Churrasco: "The essential Brazilian barbecue. It usually happens Sunday, late afternoon. Meat is marinated with just plain rock salt or milk, Cognac, or cachaça and includes cuts like top sirloin cap and bottom sirloin, which are served with grilled chicken hearts, homemade salsa, and lots of cachaça and beer."
= How are you?
Estou bem, obrigado
= I am fine, thank you
= And you?
Eu não entendendo
= I don't understand
Qual é seu nome?
= What is your name?
Meu nome é
= My name is
Por favor, você pode me ajudar?
= Please, can you help me?
Onde é o banheiro?
= Where is the toilet/bathroom?
Desculpe, eu não falo Português
= Sorry, I don't speak Portuguese
= good morning
= good afternoon
e = good night/evening
= Thank you
Tudo da certo no final- everything works out in the end
Amanha tudo se resolve- things will get better tomorow
Brazil is the country of tomorrow
Short-termism: Forward planning does not apply too much. "live in the moment"
Relationship focused/not system oriented society- contacts are made face to face
Time is spent establishing and maintaining relationships- Brazilians put people they know first, and if necessary, even bend the rules to accommodate their needs
Jeitinho- "a little way" or "there has to be another way" regardless of the rules or systems in place, where there is a will there has to be a way around them
"know your place" this can be contributed to their colonial past
Brazilians are usually informal in the way they dress, talk, and approach new friendships
Brazil is class based culture
Brazilians care a great deal about appearances- in architecture, nature, and people
Brazilians are very hygienic
The concept of "on time" is not as relevant in Brazil
saudade: nostalgia, melancholy, longing, desire...
Wearing the colors of the national flag (green&yellow) is in bad taste unless at a big event
Brazilians are highly critical of their country but do not welcome similar criticism from outsiders
Family is all inclusive idea
ser parte da familia- to be part of the family
weddings are big celebrations and even people who live together as long-term partners are celebrated
machismo- men have the last word
childbirth is the ultimate cause for celebration
children are center of family life- their opinion is considered valid
inseperable from music
invented in the 1950s
response to other modernist movements
"modern and intellectual"
quieter, more relaxed sound
"The Girl from Ipanema," became a standard part of jazz repertoire
Composers: Anotonio Carlos Jobim, Joao Gilberto, Johnny Alf
instrumental music with origins from 19th century Rio de Janeiro
played with flute, guitar, and cavaquinho
fast and has a happy rhythm
Creator: Joaquim Callado
"Choro is classical music played with bare feet and callus on the hands"
originated from the black Bahians in Rio de Janeiro
traditionally played by strings (e.g. cavanquinho) and various percussion instruments (e.g. tamborim
linked with African rhythms
icon of Brazilian identity; music of the masses
started gaining popularity in the 1930s
usually performed by couples
standard rhythm 2/4, 3 steps for 2 beats
Samba no pe
Samba de Gafieira
Samba de roda
music and dance
originated from the NE sertao in the 19th century
country music! played with zabumba (drum), triangle, and accordion
spread in the late 1940s by Luiz Gonzaga, singer, songwriter, and accordion master ("Asa Branca")
danced with partners where participants move in proper synchronization
Carimbo and Lambada
originally from the region of Para
loose and very sensual dance, side-to-side movements with many spins and hip movements
woman tries to cover the man with her skirt
to the beat of Carimbo drums
influence of modern rhythms developed into Lambada ("strong slap" or "hit")
Lambada dance is characterized by the wave-like body movements of the dancers
martial art which incorporates elements of dance, acrobatics, and music
created by African slaves, mainly from Angola
derived from the word "capao," portuguese for "castrated rooster"
arose as a hope of survival for an escaped slave - symbol of resistance to oppression
lots of fighting movements like kicks, sweeps, punches, and elbow strikes
Rio De Janeiro Carnival
blend of music, dance, pageantry in the "Greatest Show on Earth"
pagan roots from prehistoric practice of painting the body and wearing masks and feathers during rites intended to exorcise demons
pre-Lent occasion to feast and bid goodbye to indulgence of the flesh before the season of fasting
"the conviction that in spite of all evidence to the contrary, there still exists a time and place where freedom is possible"
people transform themselves away from reality
themes of floats and costumes interpret nation's past, culture, mood and sense of identity, often in a critical way (e.g abolition of slavery, exploitation of Amazon, evils of consumerism