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Classification of software

Year 12 Computing Revision - Classification of software 1. System software 2. Application software 3. Generations of programming language
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Mark MacInnes

on 14 April 2010

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Transcript of Classification of software

8.2 Classification of software Textbook pp 181-185 Software System Software Operating System Library Programs Utility Programs Programming Language Translators Examples:
Disk formatter
File compression
Firewall Assembler Compiler Interpreter Application Software General-Purpose Application Software Examples:
Word processor
Spreadsheet
Database Management Special-Purpose Application Software Examples:
Payroll
Web browser
Tax calculator Bespoke
Application Software Examples:
Air traffic control
BBC TV licensing service
London Congestion Charging Scheme Operating System An interface between the user & the hardware
Every computer needs an OS to run the hardware
Provides a software platform for other programs Library Programs A collection of compiled routines that other programs can use


Print
Common programming functions


Can you name any library routines/ functions in any programming languages you use/have used? Examples? Examples? Utility Programs Perform a specific computer related task


Backup/Restore
Scan disk/disk repair


Name three utility programs you have used Examples? System Software Performs the tasks needed to operate the hardware Language translators When computer programs are written they need to be converted into machine code. This binary code is the language which the computer understands. Translates high level language code into object code.
It then saves the machine code into a file which can be executed.








This program can then be transferred to other PCs and used without the need for a compiler. Assembler Translates assembly language program into machine code
It converts each mnemonic instruction into its binary equivalent Compiler Task! Task! Key point: Object code is the machine code language of the target machine Interpreter Analyses and executes each line of code line-by-line
They are for high-level languages
No object code is generated, which is why the program has to be interpreted each time it is run Translators Activity Complete the translators gapped activity sheet H:\Subjects & Departments\I C T\ Computing\Revision\Classification of software\ Translators gapped activity.doc Application Software Applications software is written to improve our productivity i.e. it does something

There are various ways of classifying applications software
What it does
How it is bundled together
How it is bought
Generic Software These applications can be used for a wide variety of tasks
e.g. spreadsheets can be used for accounts, sales analysis, forecasting and many others.


Database management
Graphics


Name more examples of generic software Examples? Task! Special-purpose software This type of software lacks the flexibility of generic software and is only capable doing a single task.
Accounting software is capable of doing only accounts and so is more restrictive than a spreadsheet.


Payroll
School Administration
Booking systems
Stock control/warehousing Examples Bepoke software Written and customised for one specific customer's needs

Advantages:
Meets purpose exactly
Small hard disk footprint compared to off-the-shelf
Specialist Backup
Source Code
Disadvantages:
More expensive than off-the shelf
May have mistakes in code (untested) which will cost money to correct
Not immediately available
Very limited overall backup and support – no books, etc
Classification Activity Complete the software classification sheet H:\Subjects & Departments\I C T\Computing\Revision \Classification of software\Software classification.doc List of software Make a list of all the software you have used in the past week Objectives Identify the characteristics of system and application software
Categorise different types of software.
Extension: Contrast different generation programming languages Generations of programming language First-generation
Second-generation
Third-generation
Fourth-generation First-generation Code that the computer can execute directly.
Know as machine code
Consists entirely of 0s and 1s (binary) Second-generation Uses mnemonics instead of numbers for instructions.
Know as assembly language
Assembly language needs to be translated into machine code using an assembler Third-generation These languages are procedural, meaning that the instructions are executed in a programmer-defined sequence.
One statement translates into several machine code statements


PHP, C, Pascal, Java
Examples? Fourth-generation Declarative languages, meaning they define what is to be computed rather than how


SQL, Prolog Examples? Homework Complete questions 6, 7 & 8 on page 237

Print out this homework and the last homework for next lesson List of software Classify each item in your list of software using the information you have learnt today.

Extension:
Add more pieces of software to the list, ensure you have covered all types of software.
Question: Why have these computer instructions in mnemonics? H:\Subjects & Departments\I C T\Computing\Revision \Classification of software\Student Notes.doc
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