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CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL THEORIES

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Hans Jarett Ong

on 25 February 2014

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Transcript of CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL THEORIES

CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL THEORIES
FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS

DEVELOPMENT & IMPROVEMENT

• Accepting the pragmatist view that
change, not permanence, is the
essence of reality

• Declares that education is always in
the process of development • The essence of education is continual
PROGRESSIVISM

CHANGE & SOCIAL REFORM

•Claims to be the true successor of
progressivism & declares that the chief purpose of education is to "reconstruct" society in order to meet the cultural crisis brought about by social, political and economic problems
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM

MASTERY OF ESSENTIAL CONTENT

• Advocated to reexamine curricular matters, distinguishing the essentials & the non-essentials in the school programs & to re-establish the authority of the teacher in the classroom
ESSENTIALISM

HUMANITIES & CLASSICS

• Believes that the basic principles of education are changeless, permanent or perennial
PERRENIALISM
EDUC 501: Philosophy of Education
DR. DIONY VARELA
Philippine Normal University
BASIC PRINCIPLES
• Education should be active and related to the interest of the child
• Learning should take placer through problems solving rather than absorption of subject matter
• Education as the intelligent reconstruction of experience,
is synonymous with civilized living
• Education should be life itself rather than preparation for living
PROGRESSIVISM
• Stresses the extent to which the child, the school & education itself are shaped by social and cultural forces

• Education must become the chief means of enacting program of clear and precise social action

•The means & ends of education must completely refashioned to meet the demands of the present cultural crisis
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• Learning, of its very nature, involves hard work and often unwilling application

• The initiative in education should lie with the teacher & not with the pupil

• The heart of the educational process is the absorption of prescribed subject matter

ESSENTIALISM
• Since human nature is constant, the nature of education remains constant too

• Education should concentrate on developing the rational faculty

• Education is not a replica of life but preparation of it
PERRENIALISM
PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS
• Pragmatism
PROGRESSIVISM
•Pragmatism
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• Compatible with a variety of Philosophical outlooks. Educators
in IDEALISM support it
ESSENTIALISM
• Classical Realism supported by some idealist
PERRENIALISM
PHILOSOPHERS OFTEN CITED
• JOHN DEWEY

• JOHANN PESTALOZZI
PROGRESSIVISM
• JOHN DEWEY
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• HERMAN HORNE
ESSENTIALISM
• ARISTOTLE & AQUINAS
PERRENIALISM
PRINCIPAL PROPONENTS
• FRANCIS W. PARKER

• WILLIAM HEARD KILPATRIK,
JOHN L. CHILDS & BOYD H. BODE
PROGRESSIVISM
•THEODORE BRAMELD (Influenced by John Dewey's educational philosophy)

•GEORGE COUNTS

•HAROLD RUGG

•ISAAC BERKSON
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• William Bagley (1930)

• MICHAEL DEMIASHEVICH

• HENRY MORRISON
ESSENTIALISM
• Robert Maynard Hutchins (1963)
• Mortimer J. Alder
PERRENIALISM
AIMS OF EDUCATION
• To meet the needs of a growing child

• To make the school a pleasant place for learning

• Opposes the following:
-Extreme reliance on bookish methods of Obtaining learning by memorization of factual instruction or data
-The use of fear as a form of discipline.
PROGRESSIVISM
• To help the students envision their good future and spend their learning as a preparation for their role in the future for which they reach.
• To use education as the instrument in social and cultural improvement
• To teach students and the public not to settle for "what is" but rather to dream about what might be.
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• To fit the perform justly, skillfully and
magnanimously all the offices both private and public, of peace and of war

• To use education as individual adaptation to an absolute knowledge which exists independently of induviduals
ESSENTIALISM
• To teach children certain basic subjects that would acquaint them with the worlds permanencies, both spiritual and physical.
PERRENIALISM
CURRICULUM
• Ladderized Education
• Emphasis on the child as the learner, rather than on the subject matter;
• Stress on activities and experiences, rather than on textbook reliance and memorization;
• Cooperative learning, rather than competitive lesson learning;
• Absence of fear and punishment for disciplinary purposes.
PROGRESSIVISM
• Reflect democratic ideals and emphasize civic education
• The curriculum should encourage tudents to use and apply what they
learn.
• Opportunity for students to gain first hand experience in studying real social problems and controversial issues

SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Grammar, History, Geography, Hygiene, Elementary Science, Drawing , Language, Art & Manual training
• Elementary School Curriculum- aim to cultivate basic tool skills that contribute to literacy and mastery of arithmetical computation
• Secondary Curriculum- should cultivate competencies in history, mathematics, science, English and foreign languages
ESSENTIALISM
• Subject matter consists of perennial basic education of rational men: history, language, math, logic, classical literature, science, fine arts, cultural heritage.
PERRENIALISM
• Students consider societal problems such as place of ethics in improving quality of life, conserve natural resources.
• Emphasized the Social Sciences ( history, political science, economics,
sociology, religion, ethics, poetry & philosophy) • Includes democratic ideals, political and social awareness, addresses community problems.
METHODS
• Emphasis on learning by doing-hands on
• Integrated Curriculum focused on thematic units
• Strong emphasis on problem solving and critical thinking
• Group work is emphasized
• Assessment by evaluation of a child's projects and productions
PROGRESSIVISM
• Cooperative learning, problem solving, critical thinking
• Focus on active learning and activities outside of school • Students spend time in the community to learn its problems
• Would analyze research and link issues to place in the community and
larger society
• Take action or responsibility in planning for change
• Inquiry, dialogue, community-based learning
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• Drills, Lecture, Regular assignments, Homework, Recitations, Application, Frequent testing and evaluation
ESSENTIALISM
•Reading and discussion of the "great books"
•Subject matter-centered teacher •Authoritarian approach of teachers
•Lecture method
• "centered around teachers". •Perennialists frequently use catechism . This is simply a refined version of the recitation method where the student "lectures back" to the teacher.
•Uses a lot of drills
•Uses Assessments ( Standardized Tests, Teacher-made tests, Memorization, both essay and objective written examinations & oral quizzing )
PERRENIALISM
ROLE OF TEACHERS
• To advise not to direct
• Effective teachers provide experiences so that students can learn by doing.
• Teachers are facilitators of learning who encourage students to use a wide variety of activities to learn
• Progressive teachers use a wider variety of materials allowing forindividual and group research.
• Progressive teachers encourage students to learn by discovery
PROGRESSIVISM
• Must be willing to engage in ongoing renewal of their person and professional lives
• Criticize and evaluate work conditions and extend educational role outside of the classroom
• Must be comfortable with constant change
• Dislikes the status quo and views school as a particular culture in evolution
• Willing to engage and form alliances with the community and parents to make the school better.
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• Teacher is the master of his discipline

• Impart essential knowledge

• Direct focused tasks

• Maintains focus in the classroom
ESSENTIALISM
• Teacher interprets and tells eternal truths
• Discipline pupils intellectually through a study of literature.
• Traditionalist - favors in orderly seating arrangements
• Thinks familiarity with students leads to an atmosphere of equality between teachers and students.
• Favor homogeneous grouping of students by ability as a means of coping with individual differences among students. • Teachers do not lecture but lead and facilitate discussions
• Teach time-honored classics, Lifelong Learner, Discussion Leader, Not Lecturer
PERRENIALISM
ROLE OF STUDENTS
• Develop scientific habits of mind
• Use the processes of scientific inquiry to ask valid questions and to gather and analyze information.
• Understand how to develop hypothesis and make predictions.
• Demonstrate the ability to communicate their findings to others
PROGRESSIVISM
• He possesses instrumental and expressive skills, humor, kindness, and compassion.
• He is a highly effective communicator.
• Problem-solver/ thinker
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• Listen and learn

• Trust that the teacher knows best
ESSENTIALISM
• Engaged in socratic dialogues, or mutual inquiry sessions to develop an understanding of history's most timeless concepts.
• Students spend most of their time mastering the three "Rs"- reading, 'riting, 'rithmetic
• Active Thinker/Learner
• Students are passive.
PERRENIALISM
ROLE OF SCHOOL
• School should encouraged cooperation rather than competition
PROGRESSIVISM
• Less emphasis on management and
control and more on focus community
building
• Atmosphere promotes analysis,
criticism, and research would best
describe the classroom environment
• Conflict resolution and differences in world views would be encouraged and
reinforced
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
• Requires discipline and a respect for legitimate authority

• Learning requires hard work and disciplined attention.
ESSENTIALISM
• Should develop the students' rational
and moral powers.
• The school should emphasizes subjects
like logic, all kinds of foreign languages, sciences and history
PERRENIALISM
COMMENTS & CRITICISMS
• PROS
• CONS
PROGRESSIVISM
Others were disturbed by the possibility that teachers might be a social change activists in the classroom
SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIONISM
ESSENTIALISM
• Students are only absorb the knowledge without proper processing of it through exercises, activities.
• Students are not free to criticize the past. They should remember the truths from the "Great Books" then apply to their own life.
• According to Aristotle, if we neglect the students' reasoning skills, we deprive them of the ability to use their higher faculties to control their passions and appetites.
PERRENIALISM
1. Educates the "whole child" and includes physical and emotional development

2. Student is an active participant in their learning

3. Students learning by doing is the key approach

4. Promotes active engagement and thinking for themselves

1. Does not favor a routine (as teachers who work with students with disabilities, this is a very important part of their school experience)

2. May not prepare children for state and district-wide testing

3. Progressivism is so child-centered and permissive at the expense of subject matter mastery

• Stability of education

• Helps in promoting the cultural lag
REFERENCES
Foundations of Education

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_ education

http://www.youtube.com
http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP3.html

http://www.progressiveliving.org/education/progressive_education_frameset.htm

http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP3.html
http://www.examiner.com/article/social-reconstructionism

http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/16266_Chapter_5.pdf

Sage Publication: Social Reconstruction Ideology
Bilbao, Purita P. , et al. (2006) The Teaching Profession. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing Co., Inc.

Manantan, Nicasio A., et. al. (2011) Professional Education- A Reviewer for LET Manila: PNU University Press
Teachers who inspire realize there will always be rocks in the road ahead of us. They will be stumbling blocks or stepping stones; it all depends on how we use them.
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