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Urban Planning

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Molli Kleeman

on 15 November 2014

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Transcript of Urban Planning

Urban Planning

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Technical & political process
Concerned with: use of land & design of urban environment
including air & water
infrastructure passing in & out of urban areas
transporttion & distribution networks
Maintenance activities
Emit carbon back into atmosphere (construction/transport)
Tree shade
Important in cold climates - can reduce solar radiation absorption/penetration, causing increased heating demand in winter
Large street trees
Contribute to reduced mixing, dispersion, and wind velocity, causing increased air pollution at street level
Density and mobility
Because of extended green areas, population density reduced, causing increasing mobility and fuel consumption
Case-by-case basis
Different infrastructures and methods work in different places/climates
What is Urban Planning?
Urban Planning is only one piece of the puzzle
green spaces
architecture & infrastructure
transportation
Overview
The Great Chicago Fire of 1871

"At least 300 people were dead, 100,000 people were homeless, and $200 million worth of property was destroyed. The entire central business district of Chicago was leveled” (Chicago Historical Society Online).
Architecture and Infrastructure In Chicago

•Louis Sullivan - skyscraper
William Jenney & Daniel Burnham

•Frederick Olmstead - urban parks
Washington & Jackson Parks
Midway Plaisance


The Beginning of Urban Green Architecture and Infrastructure In Chicago
By: Molli Kleeman
Jennifer Waclawik &
Devin Ruzbasan

Urban Planning & Sustainability - Green Urban Spaces
picture from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479714003740
Green Spaces
Photosynthesis
Reduce air & surface temperature by shading & evapotranspiration
Buildings in surrounding areas of green spaces benefit
Water runoff
CO2 Reduction & Reduced Energy Use
Forests, wetlands, floodplains
Buffers of peak flows
Purify water through pollutant removal
Removes suspendid solids, nutrients hydrocarbons, and heavy metals
Flooding & Water quality
Green roofs
Reduce runoff up to 50%
"60% of rainwater becomes runoff in vegetation-free cities, vegetated areas contribute only between 5 and 15% - reducing peak discharge and including groundwater recharge" (Mitigating & Adapting to Climate Change)

Absorb pollutants (particularly short-lived ones)
Particulate matter
Black carbon - absorbs light (low albedo)
Air quality & Health
Increases physical, leisure, and social activities
Encourages healthier forms of transit
Can grow your own food
Direct relationship with diseases/illnesses
Green Spaces...
Stronger place attachment
Feeling of ownership/responsibility promotes climate-positive behavior
Don't focus on factual knowledge - hands-on learning enables "cause and effect relationships between their own actions and the urban ecosystem"
Social & Individual Coping Capacities & Education
"People acting as stewards of their environment through community gardening, park management, or watershed resortation may contribute to the feeling of self-efficacy in making the environmental conditions more favorable around them" (Mitigating & Adapting to Climate Change)
Trade-offs of Urban Green Infrastructure
Urban Planning & Sustainability - Modes of Green Transit
The Great Chicago Fire

Where are We Today?
•Parks and skyscrapers still exist
conflict with one another
redevelopment projects, renovations, and new developments

Benefits:
Expedited permits
Discounted permit fees
Developers save money and time

Example:
Exceptional Water Management
reduce water consumption
increase the use of storm-water runoff
preservation of the Chicago River and Lake Michigan's water
Chicago Green Permit Program
Urban Green Architecture Solutions
Porous Pavement
Cisterns & Rain Barrels
Reroute Downspouts and Gutters
Lighter/Reflective Colors for Buildings
Problems With Implementation
"Existing regulations and building codes often discourage private developers and public agencies from incorporating green infrastructure into their sites and buildings" (Pirani, Piasecki & Winters 12).
Sustainable Sites Initiative
STAR Community Index
LEED Standards
Providing Incentives
Impose minimum green infrastructure compliances for businesses
size of the building
location
weather patterns/climate

Impose fees on buildings that are not acting sustainably

Avoid the tax incentive route



QUESTIONS & CLARIFICATIONS
Are there any topics we covered that you would like more clarification or information on?

Any general comments, concerns, or questions?
Public transit - serves a large amount of people
Energy Efficient Vehicles - consumption of less resources
Cycling and Bike Sharing - not fossil fuel dependent
Independent Driver Services - only used when necessary



Urban Green Architecture Solutions
Example: Ventura County Watershed Plan Code Review
Local Government Commission
California Water Boards
Green Rooofs
cooling & drainage
Urban Green Architecture Solutions
Where are We Today?
transform skyscrapers into “parks”
redesign using more environmentally friendly materials
retrofit existing buildings
How can we combine the two to create a sustainable city structure?
Osaka Japanese Garden
Do you think environmental conscientiousness is looked at as a trend, like the all-natural and organic trends that have recently become popular?
What are potential problems with this mindset?
How can we change it?
QUESTIONS
What is Urban Planning
Green Spaces
Architecture & Infrastructure
Transportation
Wrap-up
Final Questions
Overview
Works Cited
"Chicago Historical Society's History Files."
Chicago Historical Society
. 1999. Web. 2 Nov.
2014.

Winters, Paul, Corey Piasecki, and Robert Pirani. “9 Ways to Make Green Infrastructure
Work.”
Regional Plan Association
. Rep. Park & Leon Lowenstein Foundations, Nov. 2012. Web. 04 Nov. 2014.


Urban Planning & Sustainability - How Transportation Can Be Green
Maximizing on the amount of people served
Consumption of less fossil fuels
Reduced or no emissions
Used only when necessary
.
Urban Planning and Sustainability - Public Transit
Trains, subways and light rail systems
Buses and bus rapid transit (BRT) systems
Often use electricity to operate, not fossil fuels
Hydrogen fuel cells
Serve many people - positive feedback for growing cities
Urban Planning and Sustainability - Energy Efficient Vehicles
Hybrid Vehicles - both electricity and fuel
Electric Vehicles - require zero fossil fuels to operate
Lightweight, compact, and energy efficient cars - efficient operation
High Occupancy Vehicles - beneficial when used toll extent
Urban Planning and Sustainability - Cycling and Bike Share Programs
Bike Friendly Streets - Chicago Dept. of Transportation Plan for 2020
Elston Avenue Case Study
Protected bike lanes
Divvy Bike Share Program - maximization with more users
Urban Planning and Sustainability - Independent Driver Services, Rideshare, and Rental
Independent Driver Programs - Taxis, Uber, Lyft, Sidecar
Rideshare, RideJoy, Ridester
Zipcar and other rental car services
Less impact from purchase of vehicle
Short commutes done in alternative ways
Supports Other modes of transit, beyond driving
Urban Planning and Sustainability - Incentives and Drawbacks
Incentives
Drawbacks
Cost Effective
Government Rebates
Safety
Cleaner Environment
Convenience
Versatility
Time Efficiency
Full transcript