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The Telegraph

A presentation for Mr.Shields class

Zach Droubay

on 26 March 2010

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Transcript of The Telegraph

The Telegraph The History of the Electric Telegraph The electric telegraph is a now outdated communication system that transmitted electric signals over wires from location to location that translated into a message. The non-electric telegraph was invented by Claude Chappe in 1794. This system was visual and used semaphore, a flag-based alphabet, and depended on a line of sight for communication. The optical telegraph was replaced by the electric telegraph, the focus of this section. Electric Telegraph innards The Creation of the Telegraph The Telegraph was not created in 1832 but was perfected in that year by Samuel B. Morse How Telegraph works The Optical Telegraph A semaphore telegraph, optical telegraph, shutter telegraph chain, Chappe telegraph, or Napoleonic semaphore is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles. Information is encoded by the position of the mechanical elements; it is read when the shutter is in a fixed position. These systems were popular in the late 18th - early 19th century. In modern usage, "semaphore line" and "optical telegraph" may refer to a relay system using flag semaphore. The Morse Telegraph Electrical Telegraphs Morse Code Morse code is a type of character encoding that transmits telegraphic information using rhythm. Morse code uses a standardized sequence of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a given message. The short and long elements can be formed by sounds, marks, or pulses, in on off keying and are commonly known as "dots" and "dashes" or "dits" and "dahs". The speed of Morse code is measured in words per minute (WPM) or characters per minute. Originally created for Samuel F. B. Morse's electric telegraph in the early 1840s, Morse code was also extensively used for early radio communication beginning in the 1890s. In the early part of the twentieth century, the majority of high-speed international communication was conducted in Morse code, using telegraph lines, undersea cables, and radio circuits. Section 4 If YOU were there You own a small shop in Chicago Illinois, in the 1850s. You sell Coffee Mugs and other Nic-nacs. When you need more Mugs, you send a letter to the manufacturer in New York. Sometimes it takes weeks for the letter to get there. One day, the owner of the shop next door tells you about a wonderful new machine. It can send orders from Chicago to New York in just minutes! [In 1850] Even now there are innovations going on. For example, the cell phone. When cell phones where first created they looked something like this. (the phone, not the guy) Rudy Krolopp, lead designer of the first cell phone, poses with the DynaTAC8000X and Motorola's new Razr cell phone in Schaumburg, Ill. A telegraph system is basically an electrical circuit consisting of 3 parts, all hooked together by a WIRE.

A BATTERY supplied the electricity or voltage. A KEY was used to complete or break the circuit. At the distant part of the wire was an electricity detector or ELECTROMAGNET consisting of a coil of wire which pulled on a piece of metal when electricity was passed through it. (More on this "ELECTROMAGNET" in a moment.)

The circuit is shown next: (The lines indicate the wires and the arrowheads show the path of the electrical current as it flows through the wires.) !--->---->---->------ BATTERY ---->---->---->-----!
! (Supplies the voltage) !
(Completes or breaks (Pulls on a
the electric circuit) piece of metal)
! !
!---<----<----<----<----<----<----<----<----<-----<---! The WIRES were usually made of copper because it conducted electricity better than other metals. It was discovered in the 1830's that the second wire could be eliminated by using the earth as an electrical conductor. From that time on, only a single wire was necessary to cover the distance between a key and an electromagnet. By Zachary Droubay Chapter 6 Section 4 Zachary Droubay presents... Conclusion Innovations and inventions are very important to our society, things like the telegraph have changed the way we communicate with each other... Timeline of the transportation revolution / industrial revolution ___________________________________________________ page 402-3 Eli Whitney proposed the idea of mass producing guns. Machines like this one made it pollible for workers to make interchangeable parts efficiently. Cyrus McCormick invents the mechanical reaper. Harvesting grain becomes eight times more efficient Samuel F.B. Morse invnets the telegraph. long-distance communication becomes almost instantaneous. John Deere invents the steel plow. Though prairie sod can be cut and the thick soil ploughed without having to constantly clean the plow. The End. 1798 1831 1837 1798
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