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History of magazines (Week 2)

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by

Georgina Turner

on 6 February 2016

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Transcript of History of magazines (Week 2)

A potted history of magazines
What is a magazine?
1840s
Photographs from negatives
Technology constantly changes the industry
1796
Alois Senefelder invented lithography
The Gentleman's Magazine
Frank Luther Mott (1930, p. 7): A magazine is a "bound pamphlet issued more or less regularly... containing a variety of reading matter and... a strong connotation of entertainment."
William Poole (1882, p. iv): "Every question in literature, religion, politics, social science, political economy, and in many other lines of human progress, finds its latest and freshest interpretation in the current periodicals."
Samir Husni (2010, n.p.): "Magazines are much more than information, words, pictures and colors... Magazines... are a total experience that engages the customer's five senses. Nothing is left to chance. It is a total package."
David Abrahamson (1996, p. 1): "It has long been the unique function of magazines, rather than newspapers or broadcast media, to bring high-value interpretative information to specifically defined yet national audiences."
Fred and Nancy Paine (1987, p. 15):
"For all that magazines have been studied, analysed, and written about, their number and purposes remain as elusive as their precise definition."
"Magazines are the most successful media format ever to have existed"
Tim Holmes and Liz Nice (2012, p. 1)
4000
Let's start here
1440s
Johannes Gutenberg invents a movable-type printing press, enabling mass production
1880s
Photographs sent by wire
1890s
Colour rotary presses installed
1910s
Improvements to the rotogravure process
Paper $ per tonne
1866: 344
1900: 36
Erbauliche Monaths-Unterredungen
launched

1741
1663
The Ladies Mercury
- first specialist magazine?
1693
1731
The Gentleman's Magazine
1734
Lloyd's List
The Scots Magazine
-
still running!
Customer
Consumer
First to use the term 'magazine', from the Arabic for storehouse (makhazin)
Edward Cave
"there was a public among the middle classes for miscellaneous information of a kind not obtainable from the daily or weekly news-sheets"
Circulation 15000 after 10 years
Believed to have helped define what it was to be a "gentleman"
1739
The first American magazines appear within three days of one another:
General Magazine
, and
American Magazine
. They compete so fiercely that both go out of business within a year.
1755
'Magazine' enters the dictionary
150
Number of magazines in the UK:
0
1828
1839
1843
1860
The modern
Spectator
is born
Punch
launched
The Economist
, a weekly news-magazine begins. It now has its own YouTube channel.
Another significant factor:
distribution
1848
British Rail
WHSmith
The Atlantic
, an American title formed in 1857, begins accepting advertisements
1890s
1898
1853
Stamp duty removed from ads (UK)
1877
JWT
advertising
agency
Main revenue source shifting from cover price to advertising
NY state law against misleading ads
Number of magazines in the UK:
1881
Titbits
, a weekly general interest magazine, launches
1870s
Literacy improving; market growing
1886
Cosmopolitan (US) launched as a family magazine
The Women's World
(UK)
1892
1887
Vogue founded in US
1888
1906
1911
1912
1925
1931
National Geographic launches. By the early 1900s, it was producing its now distinctive photojournalism
1902
More specialised magazines were appearing, such as the
Times Literary Supplement
, and the more downmarket
McClure's
(famed for celebrity "muckraking")
Odhams takes over publication of general interest weekly
John Bull's
. This would become the biggest selling UK magazine (1m+)
Buying out and merging with other publishers in the mid-1900s, they became IPC Magazines Ltd - nicknamed "Ministry of Magazines". By 1980s they controlled more 70 titles, including UK
Marie Claire
.
They still run some of the biggest brands in magazines, particularly in the women's sector.
Odhams is a huge name in UK publishing. In the 1930s they launched
Woman's Own
, and the full-colour
Woman
, using their own printing plant.
www.timeincuk.com
Woman's Weekly
Photoplay
, first (US) title all about films
1914
Condé Nast buys and relaunches
Vanity Fair
"young men and young women, full of courage, originality, and genius, are everywhere to be met with."
1922
Launch of
Reader's Digest
, which gathered material from numerous other magazines. Successful subscription model - almost 300k within seven years. Currently 49 editions globally with estimated readership of 40m+
1910
The US giant Hearst buys up two UK magazines, signalling increasing globalisation of industry.
1923
Henry Luce launches
Time
(news-magazine) in the US. He added
Life
to the portfolio in 1936.
First issue of The New Yorker
1926
The Melody Maker
- music magazine mainly about jazz. Merged with
NME
in 2000.
1929
Harper's Bazaar
, credited as America's first fashion magazine (1867), arrives in the UK. Now
Harper's & Queen
.
1933
One of the earliest dedicated men's magazines, Esquire, launched in US. "All things to all men."
UK catch up with
Men Only
in 1935
Odhams launches
Woman's Own
, and ushers in the cover gift wars.
1934
BBC weekly listings magazine
Radio Times
overtakes
John Bull's
to become the UK's biggest seller.
1938
Picture Post
launched in UK, massively popular photojournalism. Ran for almost 20 years.
Cases such as
Picture Post
show us the potential impact of other forms of media
1957
Picture Post
closed down after sales hit by increasing TV ownership
1963
American magazine
Saturday Evening Post
, running since 1897, struggling to compete with TV for audience and ad sales. Closes down in 1969.
1972
Making losses and losing readers and ads to TV,
Life
closes.
1885
Good Housekeeping
(US)
1944
Seventeen
magazine grows out of a cartoon strip for teenage girls. Forerunner in teen market (1960s)
Post-war growth
200+ launches in US alone after WWII ends. An important one was
Elle
, in France.
1952
New Musical Express
appears, importing chartlists from the US.
1953
First issue of
Playboy
1954
Henry Luce launches
Sports Illustrated.
Currently boasts 23m readers a week!
1961
Satirical British magazine
Private Eye
launched
1964
Family Circle
and
Living
magazines appear in UK supermarkets
Private Eye
was launched with the personal financial backing of one person, thanks to the affordability of the photo-litho offset printing process. A year later the
Sunday Times Magazine
launched at a reported cost of £5000 a week!
http://www.private-eye.co.uk/blog/?p=371
Sold exclusively in supermarkets, circulations skyrocket
1988
IPC buys Thomson, publisher of
Family Circle
and
Living
, and pushes its other titles into supermarkets
"FMCG"
1967
Commercial launch of
Rolling Stone
"Gonzo journalism"
1972
Feminist magazines
Ms.
(US) and
Spare Rib
(UK) launched (not that it stopped
Cosmo
...)
1977
COMAG, UK's major distributor, formed. Distributes Condé Nast, NatMags and others.
1980
Zeitgeisty "youth" magazine
The Face
launched by Nick Logan.
1985
Desktop publishing (DTP) revolutionises the industry
Adobe PageMaker
1980s
More computers, more computer mags, and the first online bulletin boards for readers
QuarkExpress launches, destroying Adobe's market share
1986
Logan launches
Arena
. Growing impetus in men's market.
1989
1991
1994
GQ
, on shelves in the US from 1967, arrives in the UK
"They filled their magazines with images of narcissistic young men sporting fashionable clothes and accessories."
Esquire
makes the journey across the Atlantic
IPC brings
Loaded
to the market.
"Something changed"
Tim Holmes and Liz Nice (2012, p. 27)
1994
Sky
(customer) magazine starts. Goes on to become largest title in UK
2011
Sky
magazine moves to email only
1995
IPC launches
UnZip
, an interactive magazine on CD-rom
1997
Cosmo
moves to Indonesia as syndication grows. Later (2005) Vogue to China
1999
NatMags begins launching microsites for its titles
1994
Wired
magazine, at forefront of tech culture, launches
HotWired
, with original content on web
2001
Glamour
begins selling in A5 format
2005
Reproductions of pages of
FHM
viewable online
2009
Recession kills numerous titles as circulation and ad sales hit.
2011
iPad app Newsstand now available
9000
Number of magazines in the UK:
Now what?
2007
Freely distributed men's mag
ShortList
launched
Trade/business
Three types of magazine
1984
Gay Times
joins burgeoning men's market.
Diva
, for gay women, follows 10 years later.
1987
Adobe hit back with InDesign, 2002 Creative Suite
1999
"The whole history of the magazine business is attended by continual deaths of titles... Competitors, already existing or waiting in the wings, are eager to take advantage of a magazine 'on the skids'"
Brian Braithwaite (1998, p. 101)
"A publishing house is a business enterprise whose projects must be financially sound, but it is also a trustee of the affections of the reading public, in Britain and overseas, and that public's standards of taste."
The Economist
, 1950
"In a magazine, one can get - from cover to cover - 15 to 20 different ideas about life and how to live it."

Maya Angelou
10 times cheaper!
http://www.theguardian.com/media/2014/sep/04/ipc-name-disappear-time-warner-rebrands-magazines
Mark Simpson, writing in the Independent
1970
Essence
, for African-American women, launched
"something is missing"
Tim Holmes and Liz Nice (2012, p. 27)
2011
Readly forms in Sweden
Niche audiences...
Full transcript