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World War II

introduction
by

Joyce Pevler

on 10 November 2013

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Transcript of World War II

Britain’s Parliament agreed to admit children up to age 17.
A 50 Pound Sterling bond was paid for each child to provide for their resettlement.
Travelled in sealed trains.
First train left in December 1938, the last on September 1, 1939.
Most never see their families again.
Lasted
27
years
Cities and Crops
Destroyed
Thousand
of
Greeks
died
Economic
and
Military
Losses
King Philip II
comes to power
in Macedonia
World War II
The Rise, the Holocaust, & War on Two Sides
Characterized by:
One-party system
Authoritarian leader
Disappointments:
No large territory gained after WWI.
Rising inflation
Rising unemployment
Government appears helpless.
Want a leader to take action.


October 1922: Fascists march on Rome. Demand Mussolini be placed in charge.
Fascism: Militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obediance to its leader.
Extreme form of nationalism
Not a classless society.
Italy
Benito Mussolini
1919: Founded Fascist Party
Promised to revive economy and built up military.
Conditions worsened . . . Mussolini gains popularity.
King Victor Emmanuel II agrees.
Known as: Il Duce (the leader).
Abolished democracy and all political parties except the Fascists.
Secret police and censors employed.
Never has total control like other leaders.
Rise of Adolph Hitler

After war joins the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) German Fascists
Goal: Overturn Treaty of Versailles.
Hitler was a failure in his early years.
Volunteered for WWI and receives honors for bravery.
While in jail Hitler writes Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
Mein Kampf, half biography and half ideological statement.
Hitler’s power increases until he is der Fürher (leader)

Beer Hall Putch (1923)
An attempt to overthrow the government.
Failure. Hitler is arrested and thrown in jail.
The Beer Hall Putch is revered.
Every year reenactments will be staged.

The Beer Hall Putch was to be the March on Rome for Germany.

Out of prison -- Hitler lays low.

Work for the unemployed
Profits for industry
Expansion of the Army
Restoration of German glory
End payment of war reparations to the Allies
Tear up the Treaty of Versailles
Stamp out corruption
Keep down Marxism
Deal harshly with the Jews.
Learned from his mistake – the Nazi Party is not big enough to overthrow the government.
Works on spreading Fascism.

Hitler must “work” the democratic process – he must be elected.
Broadens the appeal of the party.
1930 Elections:– Nazis are running for office.
Hitler’s Promises: (pick three)
He appealed to all classes of Germans.
Election Day: September 14, 1930
Nazis receive over 18% of total votes.

The Nazi Party went from the smallest to the second largest party in Germany.
First day of session --
Elected Nazis dress in their brown shirts,
march in unison into the Reichstag.

Roll call -- "Present! Heil Hitler!"
Nazis have no intention of cooperating with the democratic government.

If things get worse, Hitler looks better.

Presidential elections held.
Hitler runs. Motto: “Freedom and Bread”
Reichstag is dissolved – new elections to be held.
Chaos breaks out in the streets.
Nazi troops take to streets chanting "Blood must flow, blood must flow! Blood must flow as cudgel thick as hail! Let's smash it up, let's smash it up! That goddamned Jewish republic!”
1932
Depression two years old -- no recovery in sight.
Ineffective government -- too many political parties in the Reichstag.
Spring 1932
6,000,000 unemployed
Chaos in Berlin
Starvation & ruin throughout Germany
Marxism threatens
Uncertain future . . .
Out-of-control inflation
Nazis viewed as wave of the future.
Election Day: March 13, 1932
Hitler 30% (11,339,446 votes)
Hindenburg 49% (18,651,497 votes)
Run-off election is held.
April 10, 1932 -- voting again
Hitler 36% (13,418,547 votes)
Hindenburg 53% (19,359,983 votes)
Hindenburg, 85-years-old elected by an absolute majority to another 7 year term
May 29, 1932: Chancellor Bruening told to resign.
Bruening resigns next day --
effectively ending democracy in Germany.
Germans turn to Hitler by the MILLIONS

The Nazi party was now the largest and most powerful in Germany.

The phenomenon of large scale 'Führer worship' had begun.
Hitler speaking to German audiences of up to 100,000 at a time.
July 31, the people voted and gave the Nazis 37% of the votes.
Hitler wants the Chancellorship. Turned down several times.
January 30, 1933
Adolph Hitler is now Chancellor of the German Nation.
Surrounded by admirers. he got into his car and was driven down the street lined with cheering citizens
"We've done it! We've done it!"
--Hitler
Nazi Propoganda
“One people, one government, one leader!”
“The result! A loss of racial pride.”
“All girls join us.”
“Youth serves the Furher.
All ten-year-olds join the Hitler Youth.”
From a 1942 biology textbook the Nazis wrote for 5th grade girls: 
"The second law to which all life is subordinate is: Each life form strives to ensure the survival of its species. . . The species goes before the individual.  History provides us with enough examples to prove that mankind too is under this law. In the midst of their prosperity, the Romans lost the desire to have children. They sinned against the law of maintaining the species. Their state was undermined and overcome by foreign peoples in a short time. The ethnic traits of the Romans thus vanished. Our nation too once hung in the balance.  National Socialism restored to the German people the will to have children, and preserved our people from certain decline, which would have been inevitable under the law of species and the law of the greater number of offspring.   Here too we can recall the Führer's words:   Marriage too cannot be an end in itself, rather it must have the larger goal of increasing and maintaining the species and the race. That only is its meaning and its task. (Mein Kampf)   The goal of female education must be to prepare them for motherhood. ( Mein Kampf) "
The Holocaust
Middle Ages (500-1450): Jews were threat to established religion; they were non-believers.
Justinian Code: Laws to separate Jews from Christians in society; down to their clothes.
Council of Basel: Jews were to live in separate areas of cities (ghettos) and to remain separate except for business. Jews not allowed to attend college.
Black Death: Jews were scapegoats. Accused of poisoning wells and food.
Western expulsion:
England 1290
France 1306 and 1394
Spain: 1478 – 1765 Inquisition
Some German states 14th and 15th centuries.
Protestant Reformation: Do not participate in the religious wars due to their life in the ghetto.
Propoganda Video
History of Anti-Semitism
Crusades: Religious fervor is rampant. Jews were targeted by Christians in Europe en route to the Holy Land.
January – July 1096: Around 12,000 Jews were killed in France and Germany.
Jews leave western Europe for the safety of eastern Europe
Jews were not allowed to own land.
No Jewish farmers
Jews were not allowed in guilds.
Christians viewed usury a sin – Jews didn’t, Jews became moneylenders. Jews were often tax collectors.

Reichstag adjourned and never has a voice against Hitler.
August 1934: Hindenburg dies.
Hitler consolidates his power.
Unites the offices of President and Chancellor.

Nuremberg Laws (1935): Revoked citizenship of Jews born in Germany.
-Defined Jews by the religious affiliation of their grandparents.
German Jews lost political rights.
Passports stamped with “J” or jude to identify the person as Jewish.

1939: Jewish children not allowed to attend public school, the theaters, or movie houses.
Hitler is Chancellor, new Reichstag meets.
Enabling Act: No charges had to be filed to put people in jail
"Enemies of the people and the state" were sent to concentration camps.

Dachau is the first concentration camp -- for political dissenters
Hitler is now the Supreme Head of State and Commander-in-Chief.
The Third Reich has the power.

Jews dismissed from army. (1934)
Excluded from the stock exchange, law medicine, and business. (1934)
Excluded from government jobs (1935)
Laws were enacted that further restricted Jews.
New Laws
Other Populations Targeted
The Roma (Gypsies):

Homosexuals:

Children of African and German parentage:

Jehovah's Witnesses:
Deemed racially impure and mentally defective

Given the choice of sterilization, castration, or imprisonment

Racially impure

Pacifists and due to their refusal to swear an oath to the state and failure to salute the Nazi flag & say "Heil Hitler"

1933-1935: New laws created an involuntary sterilization program to reduce the number of genetically "inferior" Germans
Targets:
Mentally or physically disabled
Schizophrenic or manic-depressive
Hereditary epilepsy
Severe alcoholism
Deaf or blind even from diseases or accidents.
After 1939: These groups were gassed because they were "useless eaters."
T-4 Program
“Q: Why sterilize?
A: To rid the race of those likely to transmit the dygenic tendencies to which they are subject. To decrease the need for charity of a certain form. To reduce taxes. To help alleviate misery and suffering. To do what Nature would do under natural conditions, but more humanely. Sterilization is not a punitive measure. It is strictly protective.”
“Q: Why sterilize?
A: To rid the race of those likely to transmit the dygenic tendencies to which they are subject. To decrease the need for charity of a certain form. To reduce taxes. To help alleviate misery and suffering. To do what Nature would do under natural conditions, but more humanely. Sterilization is not a punitive measure. It is strictly protective.”

---American Eugenics Society
A Eugenics Catechism, 1926
“We have seen more than once that the public welfare may call upon the best citizens for their lives. It would be strange if it could not call upon those who already sap the strength of the state for these lesser sacrifices, often not felt to be such by those concerned, in order to prevent our being swamped with incompetence . . . Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”

---Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, delivering the opinion of the Supreme Court of Appeals of the State of Virginia, in the 1927 case of Buck v. Bell, which upheld the sterilization of a “probably potential parent of socially inadequate offspring.”
“We have seen more than once that the public welfare may call upon the best citizens for their lives. It would be strange if it could not call upon those who already sap the strength of the state for these lesser sacrifices, often not felt to be such by those concerned, in order to prevent our being swamped with incompetence . . . Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”
Enlightenment: Age of reason uses pseudo-scientific reasons to differentiate the Jews, but many restrictions were lifted.
1873: First time the term antisemitism appears in print. Persecution is not defined by religion Jews are classified as a race of people.
Late 1800s: Pogroms occur in Russia, massacres of Jews ordered by the czars. The Dreyfuss Affair in France

Nazi storm troopers, members of the SS, and Hitler Youth attacked and murdered Jews, broke into homes, wrecked and destroyed Jewish businesses, destroyed synagogues.
1933-1939: Jews leave Germany
About half the German-Jewish population
About two-thirds of Austrian Jews
France, Holland, & other Western European countries = safe
United States, Canada, & Britain maintianed immigration quotas
Leaving Germany
Males - Israel
Females - Sarah
Marriage between German & Jews is illegal.
4 German Grandparents = German
3 or 4 Jewish Grandparents = Jewish
1 or 2 Jewish Grandparents = Mixed blood
Jews who remained did so only because they could not get visas, lacked a sponsor, or did not have the money.
From Heinrich Müller to all Gestapo offices - transmitted at 11:55 p.m., November 9, 1938:
1) Actions against Jews, especially against their synagogues, will take place throughout the Reich shortly. They are not to be interfered with; however, liaison is to be effected with the Ordnungspolizei to ensure that looting and other significant excesses are suppressed.
2) So far as important archive material exists in synagogues this is to be secured by immediate measures.
3) Preparations are to be made for the arrest of about 20,000 to 30,000 Jews in the Reich. Above all well-to-do Jews are to be selected. Detailed instructions will follow in the course of this night.
4) Should Jews in possession of weapons be encountered in the course of the action, the sharpest measures are to be taken. Verfugungstruppen der SS as well as general SS can be enlisted for all actions. Control of the actions is to be secured in every case through the Gestapo. Looting, larceny etc. is to be prevented in all cases. For securing material, contact is to be established immediately with the responsible SD...leadership. Addendum for Stapo Cologne: In the Cologne synagogue there is especially important material. This is to be secured by the quickest measures in conjunction with SD.
November 9, 1938: Kristallnacht
The Night of the Broken Glass
A massive coordinated attack on Jews throughout the German Reich.
Results of Kristallnacht:
267 synagogues burned 177 totally destroyed
100 people killed
7,500 stores destroyed (all that remained)
Around 30,000 incarcerated in concentration camps
Even with this news countries still refused Jews entry -- US main offender.
Kindertransport
Britain's Parliament agreed to admit children up to age 17.
A 50 pound Sterling bond was paid for each child to provide for their resettlement.
Travelled in sealed trains.
First train left in December 1930, the last on September 1, 1939
Most NEVER see their families again.

Placed in foster homes, orphanages, group homes throughout England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
About 10,000 children made the trip.
The War in Europe
Hitler: Germany
Mussolini: Italy
Charles de Gaulle: France
Winston Churchill: England
Franklin D. Roosevelt: US

Applied most to Hitler.

Hitler will continually negate the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and other nations will continually “give in.”
The Players
January 1, 1934: Germany and Poland sign a ten-year
non-aggression pact:
an agreement not to fight each other
March 16, 1935: Hitler denounces the disarmament clauses of the Treaty of Versailles.
Compulsory military service introduced.
Luftwaffe (German Air Force) created
Appeasement: Policy of settling disagreements through compromise to avoid war.
March 10, 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia
July 3, 1935: German troops re-occupy the Rhineland
October 25, 1935: "Axis Alliance" formed between Germany & Italy
September 30, 1938: Germany annexes Sudentenland.
November 2, 1938: Austria becomes a protectorate of Germany.
March 1939: Germany invades Czechoslovakia

September 3, 1939: Britain and France declare war on aggressors.
The War Begins
September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland from west, USSR invades from east.
April 1940: Germany invades Denmark & Norway
Blitzkrieg: Lightening War
(German policy - hit fast and hard.)
May 26, 1940:
Dunkirk (Operation Dynamo)
German offensive on group of French & British troops that were seperated from main army
May 27: Evacuation begins and continues through June 4th.
328,226 British, French, Belgian, and Dutch troops were evacuated.

Over 1 million POWs captured by Germans.

Life in occupation = shortages
France is to pay the occupational army.
Exchange rate 1 mark = 20 francs, organized plunder of France.
Food shortages--children and elderly were malnourished.
Transportation was disrupted. Fuel shortages.
Labor shortages; most French men were POWs.
June 22, 1940: France signs armistice with Germany France is out of war, occupied by Germany
Battle of Britain
July 10 - October 31, 1940:
Germany attacks Britain by air.
July: Luftwaffe attacks British ports
August: Ports + RAF fields
September 7: The Blitz begins - Bombing of London
Day raids become night raids.
Continue for 57 straight days

The attack began at 3:00 a.m. on a Sunday.
The Nazis employ blitzkrieg.
Hitler’s thoughts on the invasion:
“when the attack on Russia starts the world will hold its breath.”
“We have only to kick in the front door and the whole rotten Russian edifice will come tumbling down.”
By Day 17: 300,000 Russians captured, 2,500 tanks, 1,400 artillery guns and 250 aircraft captured or destroyed.

The Russian Army was on the verge of a total collapse and Moscow seemed destined to fall.
Winter sets in before Moscow or industrial centers were conquered.
Germans not equipped for a Russian winter.
Frostbite and disease kill more Germans than combat.
Cold affected weaponry.
Luftwaffe could not fly during blizzard conditions.
Operation Barbarossa
June 22, 1941: Germany invades Russia, its former ally.
The largest military attack of World War II.
Blitzkrieg was so effective in the USSR the Nazi Army outdistanced its supply & communication lines.

Masses of Russian prisoners were captured and lots of Russian equipment destroyed, but these waste time.
PROBLEM . . . weather
First autumn rains then winter snowfall.
Germans reach the outskirts of Moscow.
BUT, with no shelter, few supplies, inadequate winter clothing, chronic food shortages, and nowhere to go, German troops had no choice but to wait out the winter in the frozen wasteland.
September 9, 1941 -– January 18, 1943: Leningrad under siege by the Nazi Army.
Seige of Leningrad
The Siege of Leningrad was one of the longest and most destructive sieges of a major city in history.
Battle of Stalingrad

The German Army is now in “the long retreat.”

Goebbels termed it the “elastic defensive.” Germans were not retreating – they were falling back to regroup.
July 17, 1942 - February 2, 1943
Bloodiest battle in human history -- marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties.
Casualty estimates: 1,530,000
killed, captured, wounded
The failure of Operation Barbarossa is the turning point of the European War.
Operation Overlord
June 6, 1944: D-Day
The Allied invasion of Normandy
Battle of the Bulge
December 16, 1944 - January 25, 1945
Last German offensive of WWII.
V-E Day
May 7, 1945: German Army surrenders.
The War in Europe is OVER!!
Battle of Britain is a failure. Britain is not invaded.

Operation of Barbarossa is a failure. Moscow is not captured.

Underestimated American’s ability to mobilize.
Hitler's Failures
The Pacific
Japanese Aggression

1929: Great Depression --– greatly impacts Japan
Tariffs inflate price of Japanese goods.
Japan depends on exports.
Japan needs raw materials.
Japanese population expanding, they want more land.

Late September 1931: Japanese take over Mukden, Manchuria
Japan is an island
Known as "The Land of the Rising Sun"
Japanese expansion was viewed as necessary for Japanese survival
Japan lacks natural resources
Mainly untouched by WWI -- fills industrial void
Ruler:
Emperor Hirohito
Viewed almost as god
September 18, 1931: Bomb explodes on South Manchuria Railway track (Japanese owned)
Chinese terrorists were blamed
Now believed that Japanese militarists placed the bomb.
Japan then takes all of Manchuria.
Two benefits:
Manchuria has raw materials
More land for Japanese population
Establishes a puppet government: Manchukuo
1933-35: Japan seizes more Chinese territory bordering Manchukuo
December 1937 – February 1938: Nanking Massacre “The Rape of Nanking”
Chinese civilians slaughtered by the thousands.
Women were raped, children killed, cities burned and looted.
The West condemns all actions by Japan.
Japan attempts to overthrow China.
Chinese nationalists organize
Bitter fighting occurs on both sides.
Neither side gains an advantage through 1945
Japanese will retaliate on the population for loss of life IN COMBAT
February 1936: Army extremists try to overthrow emperor.
Assassination attempt on the emperor -- they miss and shoot his brother-in-law.
Army High Command refuses to support the mutiny.
Mutineers commit suicide to avoid a trial that would embarrass the army.
Main threat to Japanese expansion: USSR
November 1936: Japan & Germany sign Anti-Comintern Pact.
Pact an agreement to aid the other if Soviets attack.
Naval Treaty 1922 established warship limits.
US, Britain, and Japan 5:5:3
1937: Japan withdraws from Naval Limitation agreement and begins to build a larger army

Japanese aircraft shoot at survivors.
Japanese apologize.
Relations not the same as before.
Unending war with China.
US employs economic sanctions.
Denys trading war-related material.
Terminate trading rights.
Assists Chinese Nationalists.
Backfires. . .
Japanese hostility increases against US
September 27, 1940: Tripartite Pact signed by Japan, Germany, and Italy – mutual assistance agreement.

August 1941: US places embargos on Japan, no oil or rubber.
October 17, 1941: General Hideki Tojo elected Prime Minister -- hard-line militarist.
Japanese aggression in China strains relations with US
December 1937: Panay Incident
Japanese aircraft attack American oil tanker convoy in Yangtse River
Convoy escorted by USS Panay
Panay sunk
1940: Diplomacy failing . . . US moves Naval fleet from California to Hawaii
Admiral Yamamoto:
Japanese Naval Commander-in-Chief
Plans an attack on Pearl Harbor
Deemed too risky
Yamamoto threatens to resign
Plan accepted
November 3, 1941: Attack given the go-ahead

6 Aircraft carriers, 2 Battleships, 3 Cruisers, 9 Destroyers, & 3 Submarines
About 70 planes on each carrier
7 Oil tankers for fuel
Strict radio silence and blackout enforced.
Stand-by point 1,000 miles from Hawaii -- attack or return.
US takes no defensive measures.
If an attack occurs, expected in foreign territories or even the Philippines.
November 26, 1941: Japanese attack force leaves Japan
6 a.m.: 183 Japanese aircraft take-off for attack.
7:10 a.m.: 167 aircraft take-off in the second wave.

Japanese tune in to Honolulu radio to guide their approach.
7:48 a.m.: Pearl Harbor is under attack.
Dec 1, 1941: Tojo to Emperor
"Our Empire stands at the threshold of glory or oblivion"
Japanese take a northern route to avoid detection by American surveillance crews.
Japanese are in position to attack
December 7, 1941

Battle of Bataan lasts for three months.

March 1942: Gen. MacArthur ordered by FDR to relocate to Australia.
Upon landing in Australia, MacArthur tells the press:
“The President of the United States ordered me to break through the Japanese lines and proceed from Corregidor to Australia for the purpose, as I understand it, of organizing the American offensive against Japan, a primary objective of which is the relief of the Philippines. I came through and I shall return.”

POWs were robbed of possessions, THEN forced to march 90 miles to the POW camp.
On the March . . .
Thousands die from disease, starvation, dehydration, heat exhaustion, untreated wounds, and execution.
POWs beaten randomly and denied food and water.
If you fell behind, either left or executed.
Battles of the Pacific
Dec 7: Pearl Harbor attacked
Dec 8: Declaration of war
Dec 10: Japanese invade Philippines
Dec 23: Gen. MacArthur withdraws from Manila to Bataan.
US is losing Battle of Bataan.
"I shall return." -- Famous line
Bataan Death March
April 9, 1942: Surrender at Bataan
About 75,000 Filipino & American troops surrender to the Japanese.
Single largest surrender of an American force in history.
Japanese planned on a surrender of 25,000 & are NOT prepared for 75,000.
Soldiers were starved & diease-ridden
Estimate: 25% of the POWs die on the march.
Doolittle Raid
April 18, 1942: US air raid on Japan.
All 16 planes lost during the mission
Militarily insignificant -- but a great morale booster.
The US is striking back!!!
Battle of Coral Sea

First naval battle where neither side saw the other ship.
Considered first US victory of the war
May 4 - 8, 1942: First battle of aircraft carriers.
Pacific Strategy
Island-hopping: US offensive strategy of WWII in the Pacific
Goal: Bypass strongly defended islands and capture weaker islands leading to Japan.
After Battle of Midway -- new strategy
Establish a line of bases for supplying troops and air support in striking sitance of Japan.
Stall Japan while Allies fight in Europe

US victory -- Japan suffers heavy losses.
Broken code enabled US to prepare for Japanese battle.
Battle of Midway
Turning point . . .
May 1942: Japanese code broken
Major naval battle.
Japan can't keep up with US shipbuilding
Japanese-American Internment
Japanese in America
Issei Japanese: Japanese immigrants
Nisei Japanese: First generation born
in America to Japanese immigrants
Live in tight communities
Are not in America permanantly (they think)
Most speak little to no English
Adopt traditional Japanese life to the US
Keep ties to "home"
Raise children to be "good Japanese"
American citizens
Attended American schools & Japanese
language/culture school
Most bilingual: English at school
Japanese at home
No connection to Japan -- America is "home"
January 6, 1942: Joint Immigration Committee (CA) publishes
manifesto against ethnic Japanese.
Claims in manifesto:
All of Japanese descent are loyal to Emperor Hirohito.
Accused Japanese language schools with teaching racial superiority.
Committee has support of CA Department of the American Legion.
After Pearl Harbor
December 8, 1941: War declaration in Congress
At this time over 100,000 Japanese live on West Coast.
Japanese are viewed with distrust
Lt. Gen. John DeWitt, head of Western Command, leads the charge to isolate Japanese as potential traitors.
Japanese are targeted because they are Japanese.

It is feared that they would commit acts of espoionage or sabotage for the Japanese government.
Considered POTENTIAL security risks
New Rules for Japanese
Presidential Proclamation 2525: Japanese
nationals were located and imprisoned.

Presidential Proclamation 2537: Aliens required
to report change of address or change of employment to the FBI.
Violators of these regulations were subject to "arrest, detention, and internment for the duration of the war."
February 19, 1942: Executive Order 9066 signed by FDR
Gave power to military commanders to designate "military areas . . . from which any or all persons may be excluded."
These exclusion zones applied to citizens and non-citizens
Instructions for Japanese
on new rules.

Posted publically

May 3: Japanese ordered to report to assembly centers until permanent “Relocation Center” is ready.
March 2, 1942: Public Proclamation No. 1
Japanese are notified they may not live in
"Military Area No. 1" (the West Coast)
March 11: Assets frozen -- those who would move, now can't -- no money
March 24: 8pm - 6pm curfew for everyone of Japanese ancestry.
Types of Camps
Civilian Assembly Centers: Temporary Centers

Relocation Centers: Permanent Holding Facility

Detention Center
For Japanese who were considered disruptive or of special interest to the government.

Some Relocation Centers remain open until 1946.
Most Japanese Americans return to towns they left –-- some leave for Japan.
December 1944: Supreme Court rules detainment is unconstitutional
Internees were given $25 and a train ticket to their former home.
February 1983: Congressional commission -- internment was "unjust and motivated by racism rather than real military necessity."
1976: President Ford admits detention was wrong
Battle of Guadalcanal

US victory
US now takes the offensive and Japan is in defensive mode
Battle of Leyte Gulf

US wanted to deprive Japan of an oil source.
Japan fails to meet its objectives.
US victory!!!
Kamikaze: Pilots who intentionally crash their planes into US ships, with the goal of sinking the ship.
Turning Point . . .
August 7, 1942 - February 9, 1943
First major US offensive
Battle occurs on the ground, at sea, & in the air
Largest naval battle of WWII.
Japanese employ kamikaze attacks for the first time.
Kamikazes are “the only weapon I feared in the war.”
-- Admiral Halsey
Battle of Iwo Jima
February 19 - March 26, 1945
First American attack on Japanese home islands
Iwo Jima is heavily fortified -- about 22,000 Japanese soldiers.
20,000 die and 1,083 taken prisoner
Heavy American casualties, but a US victory!!
Battle of Okinawa

Casualties:
Japanese: 100,000+ killed; 100,000+ civilians die.
Allies: 50,000+ wounded; 12,000+ KIA
Late March - June 1945: 82 Day Battle
Largest amphibious assault of WWII (Pacific)
Fierce fighting . . .
Around 2,000 kamikaze attacks

Last battle of the Pacific.
Japan surrenders before invasion occurs.
Main Objective: Capture Okinawa (340 m from Japan)
Okinawa to be launching point for the invasion of Japan
Marines hearing news of V-E Day
FDR Dies
April 12, 1945: President Roosevelt dies in Warm Springs, Georgia
"I have a terrific headache."
Suffered a cerebral hemorrhage
Harry Truman is now president
He was vice-president for 3 months
Manhattan Project
Authorized by FDR in 1941
The Manhattan Project is the development of the first atomic bomb.
Two bombs created:
Little Boy: Uranium-235 bomb.
Fat Man: Plutonium-239 bomb.
First Bomb Test: July 16, 1945
August 6, 1945: Little Boy dropped on Hiroshima
About 70,000 die instantly.
Hiroshima
August 9, 1945:
Fat Man dropped
on Nagasaki
Nagasaki
Between 50,000 & 70,000 die instantly
August 14, 1945: Statement issued to Japan from Emperor Hirohito:
“Moreover, the enemy now possesses a new and terrible weapon with the power to destroy many innocent lives and do incalculable damage. Should we continue to fight, not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization. Such being the case, how are We to save the millions of Our subjects, or to atone Ourselves before the hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors? This is the reason why We have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the Joint Declaration of the Powers.”
V-J Day
August 15, 1945: Japanese announce surrender
September 2, 1945: Official surrender ceremony.
Surrender is signed on board the USS Missouri
Victory!!!!
Full transcript