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The Atom and Elements

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Matthew Lane

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of The Atom and Elements

THE NUCLEUS The core of the atom
Extremely small compared to the rest of the atom
All of the mass of the atom is found in the nucleus
The rest of the atom is mostly empty space with no mass
What is found in the nucleus? The Atom and Elements + Protons Protons are positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom Protons have a mass of 1 amu and contribute to the total mass of an atom All elements have a unique number of protons found in their nuclei + Atom: Element: Matter made of only one kind of atom The smallest particle of an element + On the periodic table the atomic number shows the number of protons in the atoms of an element They are
organized on the
periodic table of elements Neutrons Neutrons are neutral particles with no charge in the nucleus of an atom Neutrons have a mass of 1 amu and contribute to the total mass of an atom Sometimes the same type of atom may be able to have different numbers of neutrons Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons Some isotopes are unstable and will decay over time The periodic table also tells us the mass of elements. We can use this to find the number of neutrons The mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons If you subtract protons from the mass what is left is all neutrons 7-3=4 Because the number
of neutrons can change not all atoms
of the same element have the same mass The mass number on the periodic table is usually not a whole number...
How can you have .81
of a neutron? This is because it is showing the atomic mass Atomic Mass
The average mass
of an element in nature Electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus of an atom They do not actually move in orbits around an atom, but we still draw
them that way because its
easier to model The Electron Cloud:
Region surrounding an atom
where electrons are most likely found When the number
of electrons equals
the number of
protons an atom
is neutral If the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons the atom has a charge and is called an ion - - - -
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