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Socio-Cultural Effect of Tourism

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Emma Rice

on 20 May 2013

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Transcript of Socio-Cultural Effect of Tourism

Socio-Cultural Impacts of
Tourism in Lo, Mustang Learning Objectives Socio-Cultural Definition Negative Socio-cultural Impacts Positive Socio-Cultural Impacts Nepal Facts and Figures Mustang Facts and Figures Tourism in Lo, Mustang Issues Affecting Tourism - Types Of Tourist Government Issues Carrying Capacity Damage to Environment Affected Locals Butler's Life Cycle Plogs Type of Tourist Liepers Model of Influences on the Tourism System Tourism in Nepal Tourism in Nepal Basic facts...
Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP) Goal:“to achieve sustained balance between nature conservation and socio-economic improvement in the Annapurna Conservation Area thereby assist National Trust for Nature Conservation in achieving its goal.” Objectives: Impacts of ACAP on tourism Positive Negative Annapurna Conservation Area Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) Attractions in ACA Accommodations Standard teahouses or lodges within the Annapurna Conservation Area, however there are also few luxury hotels close to Annapurna Conservation Area (area of Pokhara), such as Hotel Pokhara Grande, Shangri-La, etc. Objectives How ACAP attracts tourism in the Himalayas Doxey's Index of Irritation Asses the social and cultural effects of tourism development Understand the impacts on Lo and Nepal The effects on host communities of direct and indirect relations with tourists and of interaction with the tourism industry. Host Communities are often weaker party Tourism brings about changes in values, culture, crime, employment, and physical damage. Commodification Values Standardisation Authenticity Culture Clash Physical Damage Crime Work Understanding Culture Preservation of culture Locals can regain control Development of tourism facilities 101 ethnic groups 92 languages - Official is Nepali One of the poorest economies in the world. GDP $1300 (2011) Agriculture 39% GDP - employs 76% Opened it's barriers to tourists in 1950s Carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette; tourism, sex tourism. Some of the worlds highest mountains The tourist industry in Nepal employs 42% of the total working population Tourist Arrival in 2011 - 736,215, average length of stay - 13.12 Most common age - 31 - 45 year olds From India, P.R of China, USA, UK Earning from travel increased, average spend per tourist decreased Lo is part of upper mustang, dates back to 9th century 14780 people in Mustang, 6200 in Upper Mustang. Mustang is located in the trans-Himalayan region and covers about 47% of the Annapurna Conservation Area. Ethnically, Mustang can be divided into four distinct areas: Lochhoden Area; Baragon Area; Panchgaon Area and Thaksatsae Area. Culture and Heritage Throughout history, Mustang received immigrants particularly from the North (Tibet) High mountains and deep valleys of Mustang have provided excellent refuge for pre-Buddhism tradition and culture. The Meki Lhakang Temple located near Kobang village Mustang's natural wonders - natural fire at Muktinath and MuktinathTemple complex; fossilized ammonites found in Kali Gandaki river beds and several natural ponds at Damodar Kunda. Tourism in Lo Mustang is also the location of the world’s deepest gorge along the Kali Gandaki river between Mount Anaapunna and Mount. Dhaulagiri Mustangs caves, forts, monasteries and temples, some of which date to past miliennia carry echoes of the areas rich history Mustang area has controlled tourism. Mustang is the most popular tourism destination within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) receiving almost 30% visitors trekking in ACA. Local communities were involved in all aspects of conservation and development processes Friendship and International relationship Interaction and exchange of culture and knowledge Instrument of human education Instrument of peace Employment generation - Directly and indirectly Infrastructure development Regulations and suggestions Restricted tourism and develop sustainable tourism Regulation of revenue returned to Lo Impact of Tourism Socio Economic Problems affecting tourism Himalayan Region Known as the windy district Being at a high altitude area can cause health problems for some visitors. Government should invest in Education and encourage the youth to take an interest. Evaluate how the negative effects can be overcome Understand the role of ACAP Population of 29,331,000 Closed to visitors until 1992, then opened with entrance fee and limited numbers Culture and Heritage sites Mustang is currently the most popular area for trekking Revenue from tourism Civil War, Maoists Policies are directed by the need to earn foreign exchange 'Sell out' for short term profit Inflation To conclude... Nepal has the facilities to accommodate the booming tourism industry

However, the mountain areas, including mustang, are not given suffienints fund to manage and protect the areas from negative impacts of tourism

With help from the ACAP and other government supported projects, the mountain regions and small communities can be protected and sustained for future generations. A section of the Himalayas in north-central Nepal Some of the world's highest peaks (Annapurna I: 8,091m, Machhapuchhere: 6,993m) World's deepest gorge Kali Gandaki and one of the world's highest altitude lake Tilicho Most popular trekking destination and more than 40,000 tourists visit this area per year 22 different forest types Trekking Climbing World's highest altitude lake Mountains Local culture, towns and villages Established in 1986 Nepal's largest protected area and first conservation area Covers an area of 7,692 sq.km. and over 120,000 local people ACAP is spread out in 5 districts of the Western Development Region of Nepal and covers 55 Village Development Committees Conserve the natural resource of ACA for the benefit of present and future generations Bring sustainable social and economic development to the local people Develop tourism in such a way that it will have minimum negative impact on the natural, socio-cultural and economic environments Entry fees of $14 from visitors Fixed prices for food and lodging to reduce competition and price cutting Improve service quality and energy-effective applied technology Hunting pressures have decreased since the creation of the Annapurna Conservation Area Project Fuel wood consumption Litter ACAP was the 1st Himalayan attempt to develop a central management plan It's includes the Annapurna range of the Himalayas with many peaks between 6,000-7,000m. It is a very large area of Himalayan mountain ecosystem Wild range of types of plants It is home to rare and endangered wildlife species Type of tourist Government Issues Carrying capacity Damage to environment Affected locals Littering, pollution, sanitation, visual effects High budget/ low budget behaviours Sex tourism Conflict between keeping tourists in certain areas, and the carrying capacity of these areas Government support of environmental schemes when opening new areas Marketing Activities, controversy with fixed numbers Tourists arriving by plane - pollution Climate Change Request to ban access to Everest and Sagmartha Disposal of waste Pitching tents Without management, impacts with significantly increase People leave agriculture to seek money from tourism Aggressive begging from children Affects of creating new roads Culture Society Employment Technology Education Environment Type of trekking agents used Commoditisation References Bbc.co.uk, 2012. Nepal Profile [online]. UK: bbc.co.uk. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12499391 [11/12/2012]
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Young Innovations. (2011). Annapurna Conservation Area Project. Available: http://www.ntnc.org.np/project/annapurna-conservation-area-project. Last accessed 12Jan2013. Soil erosion by Kali Gandaki river Conserve the Forest Stop Pollution Protect Wildlife Development Advertise Mustang globally Tourism budget should be increased
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