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To Kill a Mockingbird

S4 Prose Unit
by

Jennifer Boyd

on 20 March 2014

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Transcript of To Kill a Mockingbird

Atticus
Three main areas of focus...
To Kill a Mockingbird
by Harper Lee
Jem
Prejudice
Atticus
Jem
Prejudice
Chapter One
Hint that something important happened (either started by the Ewells or by trying to make Boo Radley come out)
Chapter Two
Scout begins first grade
History of the Finch family
Introduction to Maycomb
Arrival of Dill and beginning of summer adventures (namely, 'making Boo Radley come out')
Introduction to Maycomb
Arrival of Dill and beginning of summer adventures (namely, 'making Boo Radley come out')
Turn to Setting of Maycomb
'a tired old town' where 'people moved slowly' (p5)
Development of the Character of Jem
The Beginning
Summers with Dill, Scout and Boo Radley
The Trial
The Aftermath
The End
The Verdict
Turn to
'Jem said if Dill wanted to get himself killed, all he had to do was go up and knock on the front door.'
When Dill suggests 'making Boo Radley come out':
Introduction to the Cunninghams and the social hierarchy of Maycomb
Scout is punished for being able to read and for explaining about Walter Cunningham
Chapter Three
Scout attacks Walter for getting her into trouble, but Jem invites him home for lunch
Introduction to the Ewells, through Burris
Atticus and Scout discuss her worries about
school and he gives her advice
Turn to Setting of Maycomb
'the Ewells had been the disgrace of Maycomb for three generations' (p.33)
Read p.5...
Read p.9-16
Turn to
Read p. 32-35
GOOD FATHER
Moral/against prejudice

'You never really understand a person [...] until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.'
He teaches Scout important life lessons, a key one being empathy:
An admirable character
Chapter Four
Gifts in the knothole in the tree - gum, pennies
End of first grade, beginning of summer and the return of Dill
Playing the Boo Radley game
Scout heard someone laughing in the Radley house
Chapter Five
Introduction to the Finches' neighbour, Miss Maudie
Plan to give Boo Radley a note is foiled by Atticus, who tells them to stop tormenting Boo and that they should treat people with more respect
Chapter Six
The children peep in the window of the Radley house and are scared away by the shadow of a man
The same night, the neighbours report that Mr Radley shot a Negro in his garden
Jem has to go back out at night to retrieve his trousers that got caught on the Radley fence
Chapter Seven
Scout starts second grade
Jem reveals that he found his trousers mended and laid out for him
The children find string, soap carvings of themselves, a medal and a pocketwatch in the knot-hole
The knot-hole is filled with cement, which has a great effect on Jem
Chapter Eight
It snows in Maycomb and the Finch children build a snowman
Miss Maudie's house burns and as the children watch outside, someone puts a blanket around their shoulders
Atticus and Jem realise it was Boo Radley
Chapter Nine
Scout fights Cecil Jacobs for saying 'Atticus defended niggers', but Atticus says 'Of course' he does
Uncle Jack visits and the Finches go to Finch's Landing for Christmas, where Scout fights cousin Francis
Read p.83-84
Opinions of Atticus
Cecil Jacobs says to Scout before the trial:
'My folks said your daddy was a disgrace an’ that nigger oughta hang from the water-tank!’
‘Grandma says its bad enough he lets you all run wild, but now he’s turned out a nigger-lover we’ll never be able to walk the streets of Maycomb again. He’s ruinin’ the family, that’s what he’s doin’.
Cousin Francis reveals Aunt Alexandra’s feelings:
Scout overhears Atticus and Jack talking about the upcoming trial
p.96-98
Turn to Prejudice
Before the Trial
‘I hope and pray I can get Jem and Scout through it without bitterness, and most of all, without catching Maycomb’s usual disease.’
Turn to Opinions of Atticus
Atticus says to his brother, Jack:
Chapter Ten
Scout and Jem are unimpressed by their father, until he shoots the rabid dog
Atticus gives the children air rifles and a warning about shooting mockingbirds
Read Chapter
Turn to Opinions of Atticus
Before the trial, Jem and Scout are unimpressed by Atticus:
Atticus was feeble: he was nearly fifty.
Chapter Eleven
Mrs Dubose insults Atticus, and provokes Jem to destroy her flowers
As punishment, he has to read to her for a month
AMrs Dubose dies and Atiicus explains that she was determined to die after beating her morphine addiction
Read p.116
Read p.120
Evaluation of Part One
What do the events of Part One generally centre around?
Are there any hints of the darker events to come?

Scout fighting those who insult Atticus (Cecil Jacobs at school and Cousin Francis at home)?

Atticus shooting the rabid dog?
Jem reading to Mrs Dubose, whist she battled morphine withdrawl?
What do the children learn from the following events?
Chapter Twelve
Dill does not arrive for summer - he stays with his father
Calpurnia takes the children to her church on Sunday as Atticus is away, where they face prejudiced attitudes
Read p.131-132
Turn to Prejudice
Scout finds out the details of the trial: that Tom Robinson is accused of raping a Ewell
‘You ain’t got no business bringin’ white chillun here – they got their church, we got our’n’’
Lula, a black woman, says to Calpurnia when she arrives at church with Jem and Scout:
Chapter Thirteen
Aunt Alexandra arrives in Maycomb to look after the children during the difficult summer
She tries to make Jem and Scout aware of their family history and to impress on them that they should behave in a respectable manner
Chapter Fourteen
Atticus explains to Scout what rape is
The children find Dill hiding in their house after he runs away from his father
Scout continues to conflict with Aunt Alexandra, who refuse to let her return to Calpurnia's church
Chapter Fifteen
Heck Tate and other men warn Atticus of a potential threat to Tom Robinson, which he dismisses
Scout unwittingly saves Tom
Atticus goes out the following night and tries to protect Tom at the jailhouse from a lynch mob
Key Event - Read Chapter
Turn to Setting of Maycomb
When warned of the threat of a lynch mob, Atticus says: 'Don't be foolish [...] This is Maycomb.'
Atticus is told by the mob at the jailhouse:
'You know what we want. Get aside from the door Mr Finch'
'You know what we want. Get aside from the door Mr Finch.'’
Atticus, defending Tom at the jailhouse, is told by a lynch mob:
'Tell him hey for me.'
Chapter Sixteen
The Finch family talk of the events of the night before at the jailhouse
The children enter the courthouse and overhear the townspeoples' attitudes
The trial begins and it seems like the entire town makes its way to attend
Read p.173
Turn to Setting of Maycomb
'Every mob in every little Southern town is always made up of people you know - doesn't say much for them does it?' (p.173)
Read p.175-6
Turn to Prejudice
‘’t’s morbid, watching a poor devil on trial for his life. Look at all those folks, it’s like a Roman carnival.’
Miss Maudie condemns the attitude of Maycomb on the first day of the trial:
Read p.178-182
Turn to Atticus
The children overhear some of the townspeoples' attitude to Atticus:
‘“Yeah but Atticus aims to defend him. That’s what I don’t like about it.”
Chapter Seventeen
Heck Tate describes being called the scene on the night Mayella Ewell claims she was raped
Bob Ewell, Mayella's father, gives his testimony
Key Event - Read Chapter
Turn to Prejudice
The Court Scene
Summarise Heck Tate's testimony
Bob Ewell came to tell him that a black man had raped his daughter
He found her lying injured and she said Tom Robinson was responsible and later identified him in person
From the prosecution's questions
From Atticus' questions
No doctor was called to inspect Mayella
She was bruised on the arms and on the right side of her face
There were finger marks all around her throat
Summarise Bob Ewell's testimony
Bob Ewell heard his daughter screaming while he was outside and saw, through the window, Tom Robinson raping his daughter
Bob confirmed that he agreed with Heck Tate's description of Mayella's injuries
From the prosecution's questions
From Atticus' questions
After Tom ran away, Bob ran to fetch the sheriff
He confirmed that he himself was left handed
‘A dirt road ran from the highway past the dump, down to a small Negro settlement some five hundred yards beyond the Ewells.’
Prejudice is shown in the way the town is laid out:
Chapter Eighteen
Mayella Ewell gives her testimony
Key Event - Read Chapter
Summarise Mayella's testimony
Mayella asked Tom Robinson to chop up some old furniture in the yard
Described home life at the Ewells (children do not go to school for long, hints that Bob Ewell drinks, there is not much money and the children are often unwell.
From the prosecution's questions
From Atticus' questions
When she turned inside to get him a nickel, Tom grabbed her
She cannot explain how Tom mangaged to beat and take advantage of her when he is clearly disabled
She fought back but he raped her
Summarise Tom Robinson's testimony
Tom admits to previous fight to show honesty
From the prosecution's questions
From Atticus' questions
Tom said Mayella invited him in constantly to help with little jobs, over the course of a year, and he was happy to help
Tom admits he helped Mayella because he felt sorry for her
On the night in question, Mayella sent the other children away and tried to kiss Tom, and her father saw from the window
Chapter Nineteen
Tom Robinson gives his testimony
The children have to leave the courthouse because Dill is crying so much
Key Event - Read Chapter
The bad reputation of the Ewells
The fact that Bob Ewell is left handed
The fact that Tom is both right handed and disabled
Tom says he only ran because he was scared of what would happen to him
The lack of proof that any rape actully occurred
Atticus showing that Mayella is neglected and lonley
Tom's convincing testimony that Mayella took advantage of him
Atticus' powerful closing speech
Chapter Twenty
The children talk to Mr Dolphus Raymond outside the courthouse and they realise he is a good man
Atticus gives his closing speech to the jury.
Read p.223-227
Turn to Jem
As Atticus gives his closing speech:
‘…we’re gonna win, Scout. I don’t see how we can’t.’
Atticus' Closing Speech
Why does Atticus talk to the jury ‘as if they were folks at the post office corner’ (p.224)?
What does Atticus say Mayella is guilty of, and how does this explain her actions? (p.224-225)
What is the ‘evil assumption’ that Atticus says people in their society are guilty of making? (p.225)
What is the ‘truth’ that he tries to make the men of the jury understand? (p.226)
Looking at his speech as a whole, how does Atticus try to appeal to the emotions and consciences of the jury? Quote to support your answer.
???
During his closing speech to the jury, Atticus says:
‘You know the truth, and the truth is this: some Negros lie, some Negros are immoral, some Negro men are not to be trusted around women – black and white. But this is a truth that applies to the human race and to no particular race of men.’
‘You know the truth, and the truth is this: some Negros lie, some Negros are immoral, some Negro men are not to be trusted around women – black and white. But this is a truth that applies to the human race and to no particular race of men.’
Atticus says in his closing speech:
Chapter Twenty One
Calpurnia arrives to fetch the children home
Jem spends supper telling everyone how 'they've won'
Read p.232-233
The jury announces its verdict
The
prejudiced beliefs of the jury
As the verdict is announced, Scout says:
‘I peeked at Jem: his hands were white from gripping the balcony rail, and his shoulders jerked as if each ‘guilty’ was a separate stab between them.’
As Atticus leaves the courtroom, after the verdict is announced:
They were standing. All around us [...] the Negros were getting to their feet. Reverend Sykes's voice was as distant as Judge Taylor's:
'Miss Jean Louise, stand up. Your father's passin'.'
Chapter Twenty Two
Jem is very upset by the verdict
Atticus says it's not over until the appeal is heard
Miss Maudie tries to cheer the children up
Turn to Prejudice
‘I don’t know, but they did it. They’ve done it before and they did it tonight and they’ll do it again and when they do it – seems that only children weep.’
When Jem asks how the jury could have done it, Atticus replies:
The children hear the gossip about Bob Ewell confronting Atticus
Turn to Jem
After the trial, Jem tells Miss Maudie:
‘It’s like bein’ a caterpillar in a cocoon, that’s what it is. Like somethin’ asleep wrapped up in a warm place. I always thought Maycomb folks were the best folks in the world.’
Chapter Twenty Three
Bob Ewell threatens Atticus and the children are very frightened for him
Atticus tries to convince his children that they have nothing to fear from Bob Ewell
Turn to Opinions of Atticus
Read p.239-240
Bob Ewell spits on Atticus and challenges him after the trial:
'Too proud to fight, you nigger-lovin' bastard?'
Atticus replies:
'No, too old.'
Initially childish and immature
Clearly overexaggerating
Life revolves around childish games with S&D and obsession with 'malevolent phantom' Boo
Believes Boo to be the biggest problem, the evil lurking in Maycomb -unaware of bigger issues
Atticus knows you can't judge people based on appearances or first impressions, you have to make an effort to understand how they feel and act
He wants Scout to be a mature, caring, thoughtful person and is encouraging her emotional growth
This is a lesson which becomes increasingly important in light of the issues the children have to face later in the novel
The Finches discuss the case and Atticus reveals that the jury argued over their verdict
Aunt Alexandra reveals her own social prejudices when she forbids Scout from having Walter round again
Read p.250-251
Chapter Twenty Four
Aunt Alexandra's missionary circle have tea in the Finch household and Scout has to attend
Turn to Opinions of Atticus
The ladies reveal their hypocrisy
Atticus comes to home and informs them that Tom was shot while trying to escape
Miss Maudie says, after it is revealed that Tom is dead:
'Whether Maycomb knows it or not, we're paying the highest tribute we can pay a man. We trust him to do right.
Chapter Twenty Five
Jem is beginning to mature and grow up
Scout remembers Dill telling her about Atticus breaking the news of TR's death to his family
Read p. 262-263
Read p. 265-266
Chapter Twenty Six
The children return to school and Scout remembers the adventures surrounding the Radley house and the gifts in the knothole
Scout begins to understand the hypocrisy of her school teacher and society
Read p. 272-273
Jem fights Scout for bringing up the trial again
Turn to Jem
Atticus explains to Scout after Jem attacks her for mentioning the trial after Tom Robinson's death:
‘…what he was really doing was storing it away for a while, until enough time had passed […] When he was able to think about it, Jem would be himself again.’
Chapter Twenty Seven
Things returned to normal in Maycomb, with a few exceptions
Bob Ewell lost his job and publicly accused Atticus of being responsible
Someone was creeping around the outside of Judge Taylor's house at night
Bob Ewell was following Helen Robinson and tormenting her
The Maycomb ladies plan a Halloween gala and Scout learns she is to be in a pageant with school, as a ham
Chapter Twenty Eight
Scout and Jem walk to school in the dark and are scared by Cecil Jacobs
Scout falls asleep, misses her cue and provides hilarity running on stage as the ham
As the children walk home, they hear someone following them and are then attacked. Scout can't see anything because of her costume.
Scout finds her way home, following a man carrying Jem, who is unconscious
Atticus calls the sheriff and the doctor who diagnoses Jem with a broken arm and concussion
Heck Tate discovers Bob Ewell stabbed to death outside
Chapter Thirty
Everyone talks on the front porch - Scout looks after Boo
Atticus believes Jem was responsible for Bob's death and intends to inform the courts
Read p. 300-305
Chapter Twenty Nine
Atticus and Heck realise that Scout's costume saved her from being stabbed to death by Bob Ewell
Scout is very unclear on the details of the attack, but identifies the man who helped carry Jem
Read p. 297-298
Atticus believes Jem was responsible for Bob's death and intends to inform the courts
Heck insists that Bob fell upon his own knife, and Atticus finally realises that he is protecting Boo, not Jem
Turn to Atticus
Chapter Thirty One
Boo is clearly a gentle, loving character, but one who has been damaged by his past
Read chapter
Scout reflects on her experiences and begins to understand things from the point of view of others
Atticus reads Scout a story until she falls asleep
Is so determined to do right for his children he would make Jem face the consequences of his actions:
‘…nobody’s hushing this up. I don’t live that way.’
Who do you think could be considered symbolic mockingbirds and why?
Final Evaluation
Full transcript