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Iron (Fe): Ores, Extraction, and Uses
Transcript of Iron (Fe): Ores, Extraction, and Uses
Chemistry IGCSE Coursebook - by Richard Harwood and Ian Lodge
Environmental Management - by John Pallister Sources to build machines, vehicles (cars, ships, aircraft), and buildings
as a catalyst in the Haber Process
to convert CO to hydrocarbons in the Fischer Process
to make cutlery, kitchenware, and surgical equipment
FeCl3 is used to treat sewage waste, the dyeing of cloth, additions to animal feed, and in circuit boards.
Iron (II) sulfate can treat anemia; it also eliminates very small sewage particles in water tanks.
98% of all mined iron ore is used to make steel. The Blast Furnace The extraction of iron using a blast furnace is a process used at an economic scale. Iron and steel are cheap and heavy Last step Extraction Of Iron INTRODUCTION Iron is extracted from its oxide ore called Hematite (Fe2O3).
Hematite is one of the more common minerals found on earth, in fact it is the primary ore that is used to make iron. Hematite is iron oxide, which is scientifically written as Fe2O3. It is extremely hard, even harder than iron. Compounds needed for extraction: The extraction process of iron has impacts on three areas:
The natural environment
The economy Environmental Impacts Negative Implications 1. Iron ore, hematite - often contains sand with iron oxide, Fe2O3.
2. Limestone (calcium carbonate).
3. Coke - mainly carbon. The extraction of iron ore has impacts on the environment in every step of the process.
Mining: Over-exploitation of Iron ore reserves is a big issue faced by the mineral industry today. Mining companies are often tempted to mine extensively in an unsustainable manner, without giving any thought to future use and availability. Mines also result in destruction of animal habitats and ecosystems.
Extraction: Harmful gases like carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are released. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, which contributes to global warming. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that can cause bronchial passage irritation and other lung diseases.
Transport: For obvious reasons, transporting massive amounts of ore causes air pollution from vehicle exhausts. The charge is placed a giant chimney called a blast furnace. The blast furnace is around 30 metres high and lined with fireproof bricks. Hot air is blasted through the bottom. Economic Impacts Positive Impacts Iron extraction is a relatively cheap process, and is commonly used. Steel (made from iron) is essential to economic development, since it is used to build heavy machinery for industrial use. Countries like China and Brazil produce the world's highest amounts of iron, and this greatly benefits their economy. Social Impacts Positive and Negative Impacts Oxygen in the air reacts with the coke to give out carbon dioxide.
C (g) + O2 (g) s -----> CO2 (g) 1st Reaction Limestone breaks down to form carbon dioxide.
CaCO3 (s) ----->CO2(g) + CaO (s) 2nd Reaction Carbon dioxide produced in 1 + 2 react with more coke to produce carbon monoxide.
CO2 (g) + C (g) s = CO (g) 3rd Reaction The main benefit of iron mining and extraction is that it provides a huge number of jobs for the local society. Often, near iron ore mines, mining villages form with strong communities.
The negative impacts of iron mining is that mining is dangerous work. Miners are easily injured, and can die in the unhealthy conditions. Dangerous diseases like silicosis can kill workers (silicosis is caused by workers inhaling quartz). Iron is a transition metal; it has two valencies of +2 (ferrous) and +3 (ferric).
Iron has five main ores:
Hematite is the most commonly mined ore. The carbon monoxide reduces the iron in the ore to give molten iron:
3CO (g) + Fe2O3 (s) -----> Fe (s)+ 3CO2 4th Reaction The limestone from 2, reacts with the sand to form slag (calcium silicate):
3CO (g) + Fe2O3 (s) -----> Fe (s)+ 3CO2 5th Reaction Both the slag and iron are drained from the bottom of the furnace.
The slag is mainly used to build roads.
The iron whilst molten is poured into moulds and left to solidify - this is called cast iron and is used to make railings and storage tanks.
The rest of the iron is either used to make steel or used for some other purpose. End The symbol Fe comes from the Latin word "ferrum" meaning iron. The word iron could also be derived from earlier words meaning "holy metal" because it was used to make the swords used in the Crusades.
Smelted iron artifacts have been identified from circa 3000 B.C. An iron pillar, dating to approximately 400 AD, remains standing today in Delhi. This solid pillar is wrought iron and about 7.5 m high by 40 cm in diameter.
Iron is probably the most precious of all metals, since man would certainly miss it more than any other. In the early 1300s, when iron was rare, some iron kitchen utensils of Edward III were classified as jewelry, and iron accessories were prefered by robbers. History of Iron Case Study Iron ore mines in Bellary China was hosting the 2008 Olympics, so their need for iron ore suddenly increased.
During this time, Bellary was an iron-ore rich region. Several people saw the opportunity to start a mining business, and one of them was Galli Janardhan Reddy (politician).
He began setting up mines all over the border of Karnataka; he was flouting all mining regulations. He mined extensively for two years, with the prospect of economic gain.
in 2009, an anti-corruption organization published a report that provided an entire analysis of the situation, and displayed enough evidence to arrest Reddy.
Reddy began breaking rules further to avoid arrest; his most astonishing illegal act was to physically move the border between Karnatak and Andhra Pradesh, to avoid jurisdiction of the AP police.
The report published in 2009 (by LokAyukta) stated that Reddy's mining has had a permanent effect on the natural environment of Bellary. Some animals, like the sloth bear, are now extinct in this district. Medicinal plants that used to grow here do not grow any more. The entire rain system has changed in the area. All the area around the mines now has no greenery, and it is not possible to practise farming here anymore.