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The Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia.

An overview of the region of the world in terms of Geography spanning from South Africa to Israel.
by

Christopher Grimm

on 2 March 2013

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Transcript of The Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia.

By Christopher Grimm The Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia. Sub-Saharan Africa Basic Facts Geographical demographic data: Largest Country population: The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Largest Country in regards to square miles:Ethiopia
Largest city in square miles and population: Lagos, Nigeria. Economic Geography: The economic geography of Sub-Saharan Africa leaves much to be desired. For example, Zimbabwe has been critically affected by its geographical location, costing them large percentages of their profits from foreign trade. (Bosker & Garretson, 2008). However, they do have access to some of the most sought-after resources in the world, such as the diamonds from Liberia as well as several countries to the south, the gold mines of South Africa, and finally, the oil and gas deposits found throughout Africa itself. Along with this, there is a hearty agriculture industry present in Africa as well. (Sub-Saharan Africa: Economic Geography, online) Political Systems of Sub-Saharan Africa The political systems of Sub-Saharan Africa range from those controlled by Islamic traditions, to those ruled by the men with the most guns, to democracy. The area is politically unstable at best, and in a constant state of rebellion at its worst. The cause for this political instability has been attributed to several causes, from outside interference, to a clash of political ideas (Culture and Conflicts in Africa, online). Topography The sub-Saharan parts of Africa are mountainous at the coast, while relatively flat in-land. Climate There is a variety of climates in Sub-Saharan Africa, ranging from Sahelian and Desert to Tropical. Just south of the Sahara desert, there is a small strip of Sahelian climate that runs from coast to coast, bordering in the Sahara Desert. South fo that, towards the middle of the continent, we see the climate change from Tropical, to Humid Tropical, to Equatorial. Further to the south, we see another desert, the one that runs through Namibia and into South Africa. History: Africa is a place with a long and rich history. The three predominant tribes are the San, the Khoikhoi, and the Pygmies. Until recently, the San and the Khoikhoi tribes were known as the Bushmen and the Hottentots respectively. The Bantu languages, most famous of which is Swahili, most likely developed in the region of Nigeria and Cameroon (History of Sub-Saharan Africa, online). The tribes that speak this language pushed south, and now control a majority of the continent. Summary of Events that have shaped Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as South-West Asia Geographic Impact of Oil and oil politics The Geographic impact of oil and/or oil politics in this region is that the presence of oil has effectively established that there are two types of countries in this region, one superior to the other economically, and therefore, power wise as well. The countries that have oil, and vast amounts of it, are generally better off financially, particularly if they have a solid negotiator to get more income from the trade of the oil, and a solid economical adviser to put the funds earned from trading away oil to good use to make the country more stable in other areas of production. Meanwhile, the countries without oil are forced to try to keep up with the Jones', so to speak, while suffering from a lack of the income of the oil industry. Also, as has happened in the past such as in Kuwait, those countries with oil are under constant threat of being attacked in order to take control of this vital resource in today's world. Photo retrieved from http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article19095.html on August 12, 2012. Impact of Islam on culture and Government The impact that Islam has had on the culture and government of these nations is that it has brought in a source of conflict with the ways of life that are otherwise lead. For example, the dispute of who has the rights to Jerusalem, which has passed hands between religious “owners” more than any other town in the history of the world. Even though there is currently an uneasy peace as Christianity, Judaism, an Islam in this town, it is still an uneasy peace for many of the extremist groups of these religions. However, that is not to say that Islam is the true antagonist in this conflict, or that they have a negative impact on the culture or government ( Sallee, online). The Arab-Israeli Conflict The Beginning of the Conflict To understand when the conflict arose between Israel and Palestinians, one must first look at the end of World War 2. At the end of the war, thousands of Jews were displaced due to the concentration camps by Nazi Germany. It was at this time that a large number of Jews decided to go back to the land of their ancestors and try to restake claim to the territory now known as Israel. So began the conflict in the Middle East. (The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, 2012). Contested Lands The Golan Heights The Golan Heights were seized in the 1967 Six-Day War. Upon its capture, Israel hurried to settle it. In 1973, Syria attacked the Golan Heights in the Middle East War. After this conflict, the United Nations would step in, establishing a line of observation between the Israeli and Syrian border. However, no United Nations action was taken when Israeli troops fired upon Palestinian protestors twice in 2011, aside from condemning the use of live-fire rounds rather than other methods. Therefore, the only conclusion that can be made is that the United Nations is there strictly to support Israel, not to keep the peace. Since the end of the second World War, Israel seized land in a way that the Arab nations feel was unlawful, and not justified. There are 4 pieces of land that are part of this conflict that are the main areas of disagreement: The Golan Heights, Jerusalem, The West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. Jerusalem Retrieved from http://www.jerusalemshots.com/en, on August 12, 2012. Retrieved on August 12, 2012 from http://elderofziyon.blogspot.com/2011/11/latest-bizarre-conspiracy-theory-hafez.html Jerusalem, perhaps the most important city in the world in terms of religion, has seen its fair share of the tension between Jewish and Islamic people. While one could, and several have, write a whole book on the exchange of power over Jerusalem, a summary of its current state is that the Jews of one particular sect, that of the Yeshivas, have begun to take radical action against Christianity (Barkat, 2004). As for the Islamic religion and the Jewish religion's interactions in Jerusalem, the only thing that can be said is an “uneasy peace”. The Gaza Strip Photo retrieved from http://www.michaeltotten.com/archives/2006/08/inside-hezbollahs-free-fire-zo.php on August 12, 2012 The Gaza Strip, one of the most contested areas of the Middle East, is a small strip of land that has been one of the main fronts of conflict since the 1940s (The Gaza War, 2011) The summary of the conflict of this area reads like much of the history of the lands surrounding Israel: a story of two sides, neither of which are truly wrong, and the land of slaughter that lies between them. Currently, the main opposition in the Gaza to Israel are the Hamas security forces (The Gaza War, 2011). The Hamas fire rockets into Israel, hurting and killing Israeli civilians, and Israel responds with military attacks on key targets within the Gaza Strip. The latest of these attacks was on One can scarcely talk about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict without at least briefly mentioning the struggle against extremist groups of Islam. These groups have committed terrorist acts against Israel, and all that support them, in the name of Islam and Palestinian interests. It should be noted that this is a minority of Islam, and are not openly supported by most people in the Islamic religion. There has been protests against the use of terrorism as a weapon against Israel, as well as their supporters by the mainstream Islamic believers. Therefore, when examining the attacks on Israel and their supporters, it is important to understand that not all Islamic people believe that terrorism is the answer, only a part of them, much as the Ku Klux Klan does not truly represent Christianity. References Buttler, Rhett (2003). Cities and urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa with population over 100,000, sorted by City Population. Accessed on August 8, 2012 from http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/Sub-Saharan_Africa_cities.htm

Sub-Saharan Africa (n.d.) accessed on August 9, 2012 from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&ved=0CGsQFjAF&url=http%3A%%2Fmrdgeography.com%2FUnitDocuments%2Fafrica%2Fafrica_ecn.ppt&ei=us4jUKL_BOXJ0QHLoYDgDQ&usg=AFQjCNEbYsw8HupuPxNqTtJDu9U3oiFojA

Bosker, M. & Garretsen, H. (2008). Economic Geography and Economic Development is Sub-Saharan Africa. Accessed on August 9, 2012 from http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/pls/portal/docs/1/1186634.PDF

Culture and Conflicts in Africa (n.d.) Accessed on August 9, 2012 from http://www.geography.ccsu.edu/kyem/GEOG466_Africa/Culture%20and%20Conflicts%20in%20Africa_Overhead.htm

Sallee, David (n.d.) Lesson 7: North Africa and Southwest Asia Accessed on August 10 from http://geography.unt.edu/~sallee/1200/World%20Geography%20Lesson%207%20N%20Africa%20SW%20Asia.pdf

Golan Heights Profile (2011). Accessed on August 10, 2012 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14724842
The Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem (2004) Israel Increases the Security Buffer Zone Around the Gaza Strip. Accessed on August 10, 2012 from http://www.poica.org/editor/case_studies/view.php?recordID=1118

The Ghaza War (2012) Accessed on August 12, 2012 from http://www.historyguy.com/gaza_war.htm#.UChcs6OPaKg

The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (2012) Accessed on August 12, 2012 from http://www.historyguy.com/israeli-palestinian_conflict.html#.UCheAaOPaKj
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