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# Preschool children master the logic of number

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## SHUREALE MCCALL-LAKE

on 9 February 2014

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#### Transcript of Preschool children master the logic of number

Preschool children master the logic of number word meanings

By: Jennifer S. Lipton, Elizabeth S. Spelke

Participants
Experiment 1: Ten preschool children between 5–0 to 5–5 were recruited from Cambridge, MA community
Experiment 2: Ten preschool children between 5–0 to 5–4 recruited from Cambridge, MA community
Experiment 3: Ten preschool children between the age of 5-0 to 5-6 recruited from Cambridge, MA community

Experiment 2
References
Abstract
Although children take over a year to learn the meanings of the ﬁrst three number words, they eventually master the logic of counting and the meanings of all the words in their count list.
We ask whether children’s knowledge applies to number words beyond those they have mastered. EX: If a child can count to 20 does he/she know that larger numbers mean the exact value.
Three experiments provide evidence for this understanding in preschool children.

Number cards
Highlights of Article
Children understand that the number word that correctly labels a large set of items changes when items are removed from or added to the set, but remains the same when items are rearranged.
Before children begin school they understand the logic of number word meanings.

Video
Math in Action
Lipton, Jennifer S., and Elizabeth S. Spelke. "Preschool Children Master the Logic of Number Word Meanings." Cognition 98.3 (2006): B57-66. Print.

Video
Introduction
Most 3-year-old children can recite the ordered list of number words at least to 6, children take many months to learn the meanings of these words.
By the end of the fourth year, most children have mastered the meanings of the smallest counting words , but their count list typically is limited to 20 or fewer items.
Age 4 children learn to count to higher numbers, and they map number words in their expanded count list to non-symbolic numbers.

Summary
Experiment 3 provides evidence that children understand that number word beyond their counting range apply to exact cardinal values.
If a child who cannot count beyond 50 is told that a jar contains ‘seventy-six’ marbles, she judges
(a) that this number word no longer applies when one marble is removed,
(b) that the word again applies when a different marble is added, and-most dramatically-
(c) the number word does not apply when the original marble is restored to the jar.
For preschool children, ‘seventy-six’ means exactly 76.

Experiment 1
Experiment 3
Method:
Ten preschool children (mean 5–2; range 5–0 to 5–5) were recruited from the Cambridge, MA community.
The experiment consisted of a counting assessment, , the experimenter began counting and participants were asked to continue counting after the experimenter stopped. EX: 15, 16,17
Children were shown two cards displaying sets of rectangles. One card, the target, presented either 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 rectangles; the other card presented either half or more

Results:
Four of the children counted to 20 reliably, and four counted to 40 reliably.

Method:
For the test, children received trials in which the experimenter presented a set of objects in a clear container, stated the number of objects, had the child repeat the number, and then performed manipulations on the set.

Results:

Two children counted only to 10, three children counted reliably to 20 but not higher, two children counted reliably to 30 but not higher, and one child counted reliably to 40 but not higher.

Method:

The counting assessments were the same as previous experiments, except for subtracting-one and restoring-one back to the jar.

Results:

Two children counted only to 10, three children counted reliably to 20 but not higher, two children counted reliably to 30 but not higher, and one child counted reliably to 40 but not higher.

Math in Action!!!
Children can learn new vocabulary words.

Children can learn to be independent thinkers.

Children can learn to problem solve.

Children can learn to estimate and compare a variety of objects.
Pre Operational Stage
Shureale McCall
Kayla Peterson
Vanise Walker
Pebbles Davis

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