Ideas

Ideas

Ideas

**ECU Statistical Software: SPSS & SAS**

SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)

Statistical software that allows for data access and preparation, analytical reporting, and predictive modeling. It can be requested through the ECU Download Center for home use, but students are encouraged to use VCL (option 2) or on campus computer labs. SPSS 20 is the most up to date version.

What Can You Do In SPSS?

Distribution diagnosis (frequency tables, histograms, bar graphs, stem & leaf plots, and box plots)

Mean, mode, median, SD, skewness, kurtosis, variance

Confidence intervals, test of normality

Opening SPSS

1. Data View--columns = variables, rows = records

each variable is a single column (Q1, Q2, etc.)

each case is a row

2. Variable View--list of all variables with their characteristics

Q1, Q2, etc. are variables

type: numeric or string

values: how you code your numeric variables

measure: scale or ordinal or nominal (each represented by a symbol)

Inputting the Information

You can manually input data into SPSS or you can transpose it from another program (i.e. MS Excel, Qualtrics, etc).

SAS (Statistical Analysis System)

A statistical software that allows for data management as well as analysis. It can be accessed the same way SPSS can, through the download center, VCL (option 2), or in the on campus computer labs. SAS 9.3 is the latest version.

SAS Example

Options pageno=min nodate formlim='-';

Title 'Your Name Here"s First SAS for Windows Program';

Title2 '21. July, 2013'; Run;

Data checking; Input ID $ Amount @@; Cards;

c407 (amount) e1 (amount) e2 (amount) e3 (amount) c396 (amount) d1 (amount) e4 (amount) e5 (amount) d2 (amount) e6 (amount) c409 (amount) pc1 (amount) d3 (amount) d4 (amount)

;

Proc Univariate plot; Var amount; id ID; run;

SPSS has two ways to input information!

Lets try inputting information

We are going to do this by transposing a survey from Qualtrics...

Surveys are usually in the form of a CSV file

The Basics of SAS

Every command in SAS ends in a semicolon and some commands need other punctuation in order for the command to be processed.

When SAS opens there will be 3 windows, the Program Editor (where programs are created in SAS code) , Log (contains info about the execution of the program; notes errors) and Output Window (output of SAS procedures appear here) .

Variables in SAS HAVE TO start with a letter A-Z or underscore. The program also requires that you identify character variables: the default is numeric. For example, gender is categorical = nominal.

SAS works by defining a data step (inputting information) and then performing the procedure step (actions upon a SAS data file).

The program follows the rule of math so the order of operations (PEMDAS) applies to all numeric assignment statements.

It is recommended to annotate the SAS code when you are working. Lines with annotation begin with an asterisk and end with a semicolon (i.e. *creating a data file from scratch;)

We will input information in SAS just so you can get a general idea of how SAS output will look. This example is a list of transactions from an account. We will input them into SAS to receive some statistical information.

**Training 8.14-8.16**