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ELECTRON CONFIGURATION AND THE PERIODIC TABLE
Transcript of ELECTRON CONFIGURATION AND THE PERIODIC TABLE
By: Ruth Langat and Tania Bore
What is the Periodic Table?
The periodic table is a table of the chemical elements in which the elements are arranged by order of atomic number in such a way that the periodic properties (chemical periodicity) of the elements are made clear.
What if we do nothing?
WHAT TYPES OF ELEMENTS ARE IN EACH BLOCK?
GOING MORE IN DEPTH WITH PERIODS
What do all those numbers and letters mean?
Each row of an electron configuration table is sort of like a sentence. Each 'sentence' is made up of smaller 'words'. Each 'word' follows this format:
number - letter - superscript.
What is an electron configuration table?
How can I use the electron configuration table to tell me...
The different rows of elements are called periods. The period number of an element signifies the highest energy level an electron in that element occupies (in the unexcited state). The number of electrons in a period increases as one traverses down the periodic table.
A group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements. There are 18 numbered groups in the standard periodic table. Each group contains elements with similar chemical properties.
What are Sublevels?
A sublevel is an electron orbital. Sublevels are designated s, p, d or f.
These sublevels or orbitals have characteristic shapes which can be used to explain and predict the chemical bonds that atoms can form.S sublevels are spherically shaped. The p, d and f sublevels have more complex shapes.
S orbitals can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, p a maximum of 6 electron, d a maximum of 10 electrons, and f a maximum of 14 electrons.
WHAT SUBLEVELS CAN TELL YOU
According to the sublevel, you can tell how many elements are in the period. For example:
In the first sublevel, the 1s sublevel is being filled. therefore, the first period contains 2 elements(hydrogen and helium)
In the second period, the 2s sublevel(can hold 2 electrons) and the 2p sublevel(can hold 6 electrons) are being filled. The second period therefore has 8 elements in total.
The same concept goes for the third period.
The first number is the energy level. We can tell right away that an atom of neon contains 2 energy levels.
The lowercase letter is the sub-shell. The sub-shells are named s, p, d and f. The number of available sub-shells increases as the energy level increases. For example, the first energy level only contains an s sub-shell while the second energy level contains both an s sub-shell and a p sub-shell.
Number of electrons in a subshell
The number in superscript is the number of electrons in a sub-shell. Each sub-shell can hold only a certain number of electrons. The s sub-shell can hold no more than 2 electrons, the p sub-shell can hold 6, the d sub-shell can hold 10 and the f sub-shell can hold as many as 14.
THE d-BLOCK ELEMENTS(GROUPS 3-12)
An electron configuration table is a type of code that describes how many electrons are in each energy level of an atom and how the electrons are arranged within each energy level. It packs a lot of information into a little space and it takes a little practice to read.
For example, this is the electron configuration table for neon:
1s^2 2s^2 2p^6
How many energy levels does an atom have?
Since the electron configuration table lists each energy level by row, you can tell how many energy levels there are by seeing how many rows there are.
How many electrons are in each energy level?
The total number of electrons in an energy level is the sum of the electrons in each sub-shell of that energy level. Just add the numbers in superscript together to find the number of electrons in an energy level.
How many electrons are in an atom's outer energy level?
This is just a combination of the previous two examples. Use the electron configuration to find that atom's highest energy level and then add up the numbers in superscript to find the number of electrons that are in it.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Filling 3d and 4d sublevels in addition to the s and p sublevels adds 10 elements to both the 4th and 5th periods for a total of 18 elements.
Filling 4f sublevels in addition to s, p, and d sublevels adds 14 elements to the 6th period which totals 32 elements.
THE s-BLOCK ELEMENTS(GROUPS 1 AND 2
The elements of the s-block are chemically reactive metals.
outer most energy level in and atom contains a single s electron
The elements of group 1 of the periodic table are known as alkali metals. They are silvery, react strongly with water, air, or any type of moisture
The elements of group 2 are called alkaline earth metals. They have a pair of electrons in their outermost s level. they are harder, denser, and atronger thatn alkali metals although also too reactive to be found in nature as free elements.
Each d sublevel consists of five orbitals and up to 10 electrons possible for each d sublevel .
The d block elements are metals with typical matallic properties and are often reffered to as transition metals.
they are good conductors
they are less reactive than s block elements.
THE p-BLOCK ELEMENTS(GROUPS 13-18)
Consists of all the elements of groups 13-18 except helium
for atoms of p block elements, the total number of electrons in the highest occupied level is equal to the group number minus 10
their properties vary greatly
on the right are the nonmetals
all six of the metalloids are also in the p block.
on the left are the metals(harder and denser than the s block elements but softer and less denser than the d block elements).
elements of group 17 are called halogens(reactive with nonmetals)
THE f-BLOCK ELEMENTS(LATHANIDE AND ACTINIDES)
The f-block elements are wedged between groups 3 and 4 in the sixth and seventh periods
they involve the filling of the 4f sublevel
there are a total of 28 elements
the lantinides are shiny metals similar in reactivity to group 2.
the actinides are all radioactive