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ss8h6a: Events leading to the American Civil War
Transcript of ss8h6a: Events leading to the American Civil War
a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens.
SS8h6a:Events leading to the Civil War
Let's think about this before we go any further...we know that it's the Confederacy (South) that starts the Civil War...but considering the following, that doesn't make a whole lot of sense...
And one more thing...
Many things that led us to the American Civil War, not just slavery.
The differences (political, economic, and cultural) between North and South were significant.
The inability of leaders to solve problems (instead of just putting things off) during this time ultimately led to war.
States' Rights is the concept that the interest of an individual state take precidence over that of the nation as a whole.
This belief is based on the 10th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution:
Nullification is the act of a state voiding a national law that it believes is contrary to the state's interest. We see this in this standard as Southern states attempt to nullify the Tariff of 1828.
In 1819, there were an equal number of free and slave states.
The Missouri Compromise maintained that balance by admitting Missouri to the Union as a slave state
Allowed California to come into the Union as a free state. Other parts of the legislation created a stronger Fugitive Slave law, outlawed slavery in the District of Columbia, and allowed the people living in New Mexico and Utah to decide whether to allow slavery.
The Georgia Platform supported the Compromise of 1850 but identified actions that would not be tolerated (hindering slavery)...this basically demanded the FSA of 1850 and put off secession by southern states.
States' Rights and Nullification
Compromise of 1850
Slavery was an economic institution that existed in the south primarily because of the difference in growing seasons for crops in the South vs. the North.
The issue of slavery, and whether it could spread into new territories, became the major issue of the country during this period.
Of major concern was the ability to pass laws in Congress...so the number of slave vs. free states was very important
Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
Upset Abolitionists and many Northerners because it undid the Missouri Compromise by allowing popular sovereignty north of the Missouri Compromise line.
Pro-Slavers (southern sympathisers) and Free-Soilers (abolitionists) flood the two territories in order to have the most residents there upon statehood.
This period was known as "Bleeding Kansas"
Suit brought forth in 1854, Supreme Court in 1857
Dred Scott owned my U.S. Army surgeon (Dr. Emerson) who was posted in several free states (Illinois, Minnesota)
After Dr. Emerson died, Dred Scott became the proprety of Dr. Emerson's wife....she passed ownership to her husband (Mr. Sanford)
Because Sanford was in NY state, and Scott was in MO...this was an interstate commerce issue and Dred Scott could sue in Federal Court
Dred Scott case
Out of 106,359 total votes cast for POTUS in Georgia in the 1860 election, 0, not a single one, were cast for Abraham Lincoln.
The electoral vote was split much the same way (0 slave state votes for Lincoln, who became POTUS anyway)
Election of 1860
Alexander Stephens was an opponent of nullification
He defended slavery
He OPPOSED secession
@ Georgia's secession convention, he spoke against leaving the Union
A strong supporter of the State of Georgia, once the state seceeded, he agreed to serve as Vice President of the Confederacy
Alexander Stephens and the debate over secession in Georgia
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
22 million people
100,000 with 1.1 million workers
96% of nation's supply
81% of nation's deposits
64% of national supply
9 million people (3.5-4 million slaves)
20,000 with 100,000 workers
4% of nation's supply
19% of nation's deposits
36% of national supply
Men of combat age
Miles of railroad track
Number of draft animals (horses, mules, oxen)
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
and Maine as a free state.
Sock Puppet Rap Battle!
The Supreme Court's decision was that Dred Scott MAY NOT sue in Federal court because he was a slave or the descendant of a slave and therefore not a citizen
What's that? you're really interested in this stuff, and you wonder what a history class @ Yale University would be like if it went over the same stuff? Wait no more...
More Yale University?
<-The Final Straw for the South