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Transcript of Zelula III
A Tour of The Cell (Part 3)
If you recall...
The Life of the Cell
All cells must do the following things to stay alive:
Process matter: Molecules need to be acquired, synthesized and digested
Process energy: In order to process matter, energy must be provided. This energy usually comes from one of two places (where?)
Process information: The instructions that enable the cell to process matter and energy must be interpreted by the cellular system. Signals from the environment must also be interpreted.
Many cells will also do the following :
Reproduce: The information that runs the cell must be passed on to new generations of cells.
Communicate: Cells respond to/direct other cells.
Cells have systems to do all of these things!
What does the internal structure of a cell look like?
How do cells separate themselves from their environments?
How do cells communicate with the environment?
How do cells communicate with other cells?
Explain why cells need to have internal structural organization and support.
Explain the structure and function of the cytoskeleton.
Compare the components of the cytoskeleton.
Explain the structure and function of the cell membrane.
Describe the roles of phospholipids, cholesterol, and membrane proteins in cell membrane function.
Explain the structure and function of the cell wall.
Compare the structures of plant-like, fungal, and bacterial cell walls.
Explain the structure and function of the extracellular matrix.
Compare the structure and function of different types of intercellular junctions.
Make Sure You Can:
Inside the Cell:
At the Boundary:
Outside the Cell:
A network of structural proteins that extends throughout the cytoplasm.
Maintaining cell shape
Anchorage of organelles
Regulation of cell & organelle motility
Movement of chromosomes during cell division
Cilia & Flagella
Motility related extensions of cytoskeletal proteins
Motion of the cell through space
Animal-like cell only microtubule-organizing center
Origin of all microtubules in cell. Major role in animal-like cell division
A cross-linked network of structural polysaccharides.
Structural support only! Cell walls are non-living
No Cell Walls in Animal-like Cells!
A network of connective proteins and "proteoglycan" molecules outside of the cell membrane of animal cells
Cell anchorage. Cell communication.
Only animal cells have any major ECM...
Proteins that connect cells to other cells.
Depending on the junction, a channel between cells may exist
Anchorage & Transport ("open" junctions only)
The Cell Membrane
The "Fluid Mosaic Model": A phospholipid bi-layer with associated proteins
Boundary of cell
Transport of materials in and out of the cell
Communication between cell and environment
Cytoskeletal elements stained green & orange
Motor proteins connect vessicles to microtubules
intermediate actin filaments play a large role in cell motility
green = microtubules
red = microfilaments
The cytoskeleton is a dynamic regulator of cellular structure and function
a steroid lipid
acts as a "temperature buffer" to help maintain membrane fluidity over a range of temperatures
Various, depending on the role they play:
Integral proteins: penetrate one or both layers of the bi-layer.
Peripheral proteins: associated with the membrane, but don't penetrate the bi-layer.
The polarity of different regions of a membrane protein vary according to the role of that protein.
Many and more. Here's brief overview:
Spotlight: Membrane Receptors
Integral proteins that span the bi-layer with regions ("domains") that extend extra- and intra-cellularly.
Signal Transduction: The reciept of chemical messages from the environment and the relay (transduction") of those messages into the cell for response.
Integral proteins that span the bi-layer with short polysaccharide residues projecting extra-cellularly into the environment
Cell-Cell Recognition: Glycoproteins serve as an identifying marker in cellular populations (like your body).
Membrane receptors are exploited by viruses (how?)
Glycoproteins are a complication for organ transplants (why?)
lipids with a phosphate attached to glycerol in place of a fatty acid tail.
polar (hydrophilic) phosphate "head", nonpolar (hydrophobic) fatty acid tails. This type of polar/non-polar molecule is called "amphipathic"
Spontaneously organizes in the presence of water to form a bi-layer
fluid: phospholipids are constantly moving
Makes a "selectively permeable" membrane. Only small, non-polar molecules can easily move through the phosopholipid bi-layer (Why?)
membrane proteins are mobile in the cell membrane:
Each component of the cytoskeleton is assembled from protein subunits
Structure of chitin:
Structure of peptidoglycan:
Structure of cellulose:
Open channels in plant cell walls
Open channels between animal cells
Cellular "rivets" that anchor cells to basement mebranes in tissues
Cell-cell connections that make a waterproof seal.
Now, let's put it all together: