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Explicit and Implicit Teaching and Learning
Transcript of Explicit and Implicit Teaching and Learning
•Good for logical, mathematics, linguistic or verbal intelligences.
•Adult learning benefit from a more structured approach.
Constraints of Explicit Teaching:
•It doesn’t offer communicative learning.
•Students memorize rules; it doesn’t enable individualized understanding.
•Generally it doesn’t allow for authentic, contextualized learning.
Key Concepts Explicit Learning and Teaching Explicit learning is a “conscious awareness and intention” (Brown, 2007, p.291) to learn.
Some synonyms of explicit learning are: active, intentional, deductive, rational, formal, intellectual, conscious, monitoring, problem-solving, analysis, abstract, metacognitive, inferencing, and systemic study.
Explicit teaching involves directing student attention toward a specific learning objective in a highly structured environment. Topics are taught in a logical order directed by the teacher through demonstration, explanation and practice. Implicit Learning and Teaching Implicit Learning is “learning without conscious attention or awareness” (Brown, 2007, p.291). Some synonyms of implicit learning are: passive, unintentional, inductive, intuitive, automatic, subconscious acquisition, unreflective, behaviorism, mimicry and memory, exposure to language in use.
Implicit Teaching involves teaching a certain topic in a suggestive or implied manner; the objective is not plainly expressed. Its purposes are to introduce new concepts in a student-centered manner, to give students instruction with a variety of several examples and to allow students to create their own schemas for understanding rules instead of memorizing specific rules.
Affordances and Constraints of Implicit Teaching Affordances of Implicit Teaching:
•Can be more contextualized and authentic.
•Young learns benefit in a more natural approach.
•Can build off of multiple objectives.
Constraints of Implicit Teaching:
•Can be difficult for learners to deduce rules.
•Students may misinterpret rules.
BE CAREFUL: There are many different ways to implement implicit teaching methods into a classroom. Some methods that coincide with implicit teaching are: TPR and TRPS.
SLA vs Implicit and Explicit (Learning and Teaching). “Explicit and deductive learning is better than implicit for simple categorical rules”. “Implicit learning is equally good as or ever better than explicit learning for prototypes" (DeKeyser).
According to many researchers a combination of implicit and explicit learning may yield the best results.
The process of implicit learning is an elementary and ubiquitous process of human cognition:
1)The term implicit learning was first employed by Arthur Reber (1967).
2) The term explicit learning is usually applied to learning scenarios.
Explicit vs Implicit Teaching and Learning Explicit and Implicit Teaching and Learning The purposes of Explicit Learning are to introduce a new topic or skill , to provide guided instruction and to give students specific instruction through modeling.
When applying Explicit Learning in the classroom:
1) Set the stage for learning by telling students the purpose for learning.
2) Explain to students what to do.
3) Model the process of how to do it.
4) Guide students with hands-on application/practice. Grammar Teaching should be implicit Boas thought grammar should be studied by examining living speech rather than by analyzing written documents. Grammar in context exposes students to substantial doses of grammar study through natural and communicative situations. Grammar Teaching should be explicit Some basic features of English language grammar structure are illogical or dissimilar to speakers of other languages and do not readily lend themselves to being well understood, even in context.
Linguistic aspects of English such as word order, determiners, prepositions, auxiliaries, modal and phrasal verbs present considerable difficulty to Spanish speakers learning communicative English. In short Young learners have more natural facility in acquisition, while adults may benefit substantially from more "formal" language learning.
GRAMMAR TEACHING SHOULD BE IMPLICIT, OR EXPLICIT, AS TEACHING / LEARNING CONDITIONS MAY DICTATE HELPING TO MINIMIZE THE STUDENT RESPONSE TEACHERS FEAR MOST, "TEACHER, I DON'T UNDERSTAND".