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Movement: Arts and Crafts
Transcript of Movement: Arts and Crafts
What is involved in the art movement Arts and Crafts?
The movement internationally flourished between 1880 and 1910. It is known to be led by the artist and writer William Morris from the 1860's onwards. The movement first developed in the British Isles but then spread across the British Empire, to then the rest of Europe and North America. People said it stood as traditonal craftmanship using many forms of decoration including medival and folk styles. It has been said to be anti-industrial by causing social and economic reform.
(1) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_movement
William Morris is a famous English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and social activist. He is widely linked with the art movement Arts and Crafts, being well known for his traditional textile arts. He is very well known through his company Morris & Co, a fabric and also wallpaper company.
William Morris - Morris and Co
"Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture."
(2) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stained_glass
Here is a piece by Louis C. Tiffany
(3) - http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Louis%20c%20tiffany%20stained%20glass&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=louis%20c%20tiffany%20stained%20glass&sc=0-16&sp=-1&sk=&id=A8F25FAEB7E955197D15C520744972CDA2BE878F&selectedIndex=0#view=detail&id=A8F25FAEB7E955197D15C520744972CDA2BE878F&selectedIndex=0
(4) - http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=stained+glass&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=0BF13C141694CB72877CF4658B0E9B72A23F2B32&selectedIndex=50
(5) - http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=stained+glass&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=06522FEF557BDCEBBFAA5DE9BC63B665AC21AC7F&selectedIndex=31
Louis C. Tiffany
(6) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Comfort_Tiffany
He was the son He started experimenting with stained glass in 1875, he started his own firm called Tiffany Studios in the early 1890's, he created a type of glass called Favrile which had an iridescent colouring. Later in his life he became an activist and philanthropist. He retired from his career as a glass-maker and business owner in 1919. Then thirteen years later, in 1932, Tiffany Studios filed for bankruptcy.
(8) - http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=louis+c+tiffany+work&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=louis+c+tiffany+work&sc=0-15&sp=-1&sk=#view=detail&id=140EAD788FC0F87DD5BB3A91964279969084432A&selectedIndex=28
(9) - http://www.macklowegallery.com/images/
Prints and Fabrics
Originally people would use flax fibers, which were separated into strands and plaited or woven into fabrics. They were then coloured with dyes extracted from plants (natural dyes).
Eventually over time, people have designed machinery to create fabrics quickly and of high quality. The whole process has been improved, making it quicker to make all sorts of fabrics. There are even more ways to colour fabrics, for example printing. You can roller print, block print and screen print in batch and bulk.
Over time making fabrics have become even more popular, considering people didn't even used to wear clothes now fashion has evolved.
William Morris is a particularly well known fabric maker within the Arts and Crafts area. His fabrics are used for curtains and furniture.
(10) - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wmmorris3248.jpg
(11) & (12) - http://williammorrisandmichele.blogspot.co.uk/2010/12/william-morris-flowers-and-more.html
Here are two of the fabrics he has made. He has a particular style of using floral patterns and he often uses darker backgrounds. He has used a range of colours for his patterns and they all have a
n his furniture he is
especially known for
chairs he has designed
(13) - http://franingram.wordpress.com/2008/12/01/adjustable-lounge-chair-by-william-morris-the-socialist-dreamer/
(14) - http://homedesignideals.com/william-morris-furniture-for-sale/
Harold Arthur Sanderson - Sanderson & Sons
"Wallpaper is a kind of material used to cover and decorate the interior walls. Wallpapers can come plain as "lining paper" (so that it can be painted or used to help cover uneven surfaces and minor wall defects), textured, with a regular repeating pattern design, or, much less commonly today, with a single non-repeating large design carried over a set of sheets."
- Wikipedia (1
(15) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallpaper
allpaper is made in rolls and hung vertically, many different places offer wallpaper designs but the 2 most well known company's are Morris & Co and also Sanderson & Sons, considering they have been around for a very long time they are still widely used by many home stores.
These two company's were the first to introduce wallpaper design.
Wallpaper printing include techniques like surface printing, gravure printing, silk screen-printing, rotary printing, and digital printing.
Early in the 1700's the techniques were hand-painting, woodblock printing and stencilling. At first it was only the rich who would have wallpaper as it used to be much more expensive
(16) - https://www.janeclayton.co.uk/Product_Images/fullzoom/Sanderson-AegeanWallpapers-Eleni-DAEG213026-01.jpg
(17) - http://www.decorsupplies.co.uk/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/9df78eab33525d08d6e5fb8d27136e95/4/C/4C8B81ABECABECB3237A5DF3476B6AF5.jpg
(18) - http://www.housedecorexclusive.co.uk/ekmps/shops/housedecorltd2/images/sanderson-ione-wallpaper-diowio104-pink-10847-p.jpg
The Chiswick factory was destroyed by fire in 1928. After Harold Arthur Sanderson's death, the business was taken over by his three sons, John, Arthur Bengough and Harold Sanderson fabrics and wallpapers are very versatile, although the company is quite old fashioned, lots of the designs are quite modern. The designs made by Sanderson can be bought as wallpaper and fabric, like Morris and Co.
Charles Connick was an American designer, most known for his stained glass pieces. His specific style was a more gothic approach. His work has been displayed in many states across America, such as Boston and Chicago.
harles Connick was an Pennsylvania born but he was most for living in Boston where he opened his studio in 1913, after all his success and being branded as one of the leaders within stained glasss and also writing a book called "Adventures in Light and Colour" which was published in 1937, he then passed away at the age of 70 on December 28th 1945.
His specific movement within arts and crafts surrouned the gothic revival which he expressed with his work, particularly his stained glass work.
This is one of his designs he did while at the University of Pittsburgh, being 73ft tall it is one of the biggest stained glass pieces to have ever been made. His work contains a lot of colour but also gives off a dark and shows his gothic approach towards his designs.
(19) - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/bf/Charles_Connick.jpg
(20) - http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-GsSrbtoN9dw/UkxX7HI_BdI/AAAAAAAAC3I/gFFVkUP3cVM/s1600/DSCN6421.JPG
William De Morgan
William De Morgan was born in Britain and is known for being friends with William Morris for a very long time. William De Morgan is very well known for being a potter and a tile designer. His work was more influenced by medieval and persian patterns, he often experimented with animals such as fish and birds.
William was born in London and was well brought up by his dad being a mathematician and his mum who was also highly educated. William attended the Royal Academy School but he was always supported by his parents on wanting to become an artist.
21) - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/De_Morgan_William.jpg/220px-De_Morgan_William.jpg
He had his own pottery school which was based in Chelsea which he ran through the years pf 1872 to 1881, he had the influence in his work through the arts and crafts movement through pottery at the time where he used bright colours such as blues and yellows etc. This was seen in his designs throughout the years within his designs, he then passed away in 1917 in London.
(22) - http://www-img.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/img/aa/aa19/C.9-1941.jpg
Margaret Ely Webb
Margaret was born in the year of 1877, she was a printmaker, illustrator and a book plate artist. She studied in New York where she went to Art Students League and Cooper Union. People were influenced by her in the 1900's, she was seen as an important figure wihtin the movements of arts and crafts.
She was best known for her pen and ink bookplate designs, she first started with just the black coloured ink. But in the 1940's she expanded with the use of water colour and oils. She also picked up woodblock printing around this time. By doing this it expanded her variety of work as she used colour. However she would never add to much colour, she often used black with only 1 colour, for example green.
She was also very well known for her illustrations in childrens books, her work has been displayed in many magazines.
(23) - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/5b/Margaret_Ely_Webb.jpg
24) - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Margaret_Ely_Webb_Bookplate2.jpg
"The Arts and Crafts movement became apparent from the second half of the 19th century. It came from protestanism through John Ruskin (1819-1900), the revival of medievalism and the catholic and socialists and current reformers. It brought all hte trades together such as architects, printers, bookbinders, potters, jewellers, painters and sculptors. It became even more diverse in the 1870's, due to competition. Arts and Crafts was largley a reaction against the perceived impoverished state of the decorative arts at the time, and the conditions in which they were produced."
There are many ways of manufacture, including many different types of glass like cylinder, crown, rolled, flashed, and traditional.
There are also coloured glasses used, for example, transparent glass, which is ordinary soda-lime glass. Green glass, which uses iron oxide depening on intensity of colour. Blue glass, which uses sulphur, copper oxide and nickel to create cobalt, turquoise or violet shades. Red glass, which is actually a metallic gold uses copper and selenium to create dark reds and pinks. Yellow glass, which uses titanium, cadium and uranium to range from deep yellow to fluorescent yellow. White glass, which uses tin oxide and arsenic to make it opaque.
(7) - (general info) http://www.biography.com/people/louis-tiffany-9507399
Louis Comfort Tiffany born on February 18th, 1848 in New York City, was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts. He was best known for his stained glass windows and lamps, but also made glass mosaics, blown glass, ceramics, jewelry enamels and metalwork. He was the son of Tiffany and Co founder Charles Tiffany.
In 1875 William Morris took over the business Morris & Co. It produced furniture, stained glass windows, utilitarian objects of metal and ceramics, wallpaper, textiles, jewelry, etc.
Harold Arthur Sanderson was the Titanic's 1st passenger, on the delivery trip from Belfast to Southampton. He was born in Bebington, Cheshire on the 20th October 1852. Sanderson & Sons was founded in 1860 by his father in Islington, London. Harold would take over management in the 1880's. He established a factory of his own in Chiswick in 1879. The old factory was then replaced by a building designed by Charles Voysey in 1902.
Textile printing is the process of adding colour to fabric in patterns or designs. In properly printed fabrics the colour is bonded with the fibre, so it can resist discolouration from washing and friction. In printing, wooden blocks, stencils, engraved plates, rollers, or silkscreens can all be used to place colours on the fabric.
"There are many notable artists within the movement for example, William Morris. His work is very popular and has been for decades and I personally prefer his prints to his furniture as I think the prints are very versatile and can be modernised. I think that it is very fascinating how William Morris really impacted the printing and fabric history, his work changed the way people designed fabrics/wallpapers/furniture. I do also like Arthur Sanderson's work but I think they are more feminine and less versatile than William Morris's work."
"I think that arts and crafts is a very broad art movement. I personally like stained glass. I think that it is such a multi-cultural thing and the artists within the subject, like Louis C. Tiffany and Charles Connick really present the skill and technique through the definition and colour of the design and glass."
"I also really like illustration, as I think the subject is so broad and can be explored in so much depth it makes it much more interesting."
"I think that Margaret Ely Webb's work is very compelling due to its traditional, old fashioned look, which I like as older books are well known for animal characters being drawn like her work."
"Within this movement there was many opinions been said towardsthese designs and artist most people was interested as we saw with the momvent bringing all trades wanting be evolved meaning there was a positive attitude towards arts and craft, my opinion is that there was things what was quiet interesting with the momvent to do with the designs such as poetry design developed from patterns to having more colour and more unique designs such with the use of animals etc. Not just poetry we saw develop within this era we saw illustrations change over time and idfferent techniques such as etching and engraving which was introduced in thr 17th centurythis was a turning point in my opinion due to it gave designers more freedom with there work."
Ilustrations are visual aspects such as photographs, paintings, sketches and drawings. Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press, he also developed a movable type system in Europe, he used his illustrations within his work for his books which is usually woodcuts. Woodcuts had a hit in the 15th century, this is because books which were illustrated through woodcuts become more available. Woodcuts is a technique within printmaking, this process is completed by carving into a surface of a block of wood, where you leave parts remaining level with the starting level, whilst you carve the non printing parts, the carving is usually done with a chisel or a knife. Illustrations can be classified into different types; engraving, etching, intaglio, linocut and pen and ink illustrations.
In the 16th and 17th century illustrations had moved away from using woodcuts and had moved into using engraving and etching, and growing nearer to the end of the 18th century, lithography allowed more free and expression designs allowing artists to be able to process there designs to allow even better illustrations, in which the most notable illustator within the work is William Blake.
The golden age of illustration was when illustration hit American which lasted from the 1880's until shortly after WW1. Within this time this allowed designers to improve their work through technology. Artists were able to express their work through colour and new rendering techniques. Within this time illustrators become rich and famous.