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Chapter 7.2 ionic compounds and bonds
Transcript of Chapter 7.2 ionic compounds and bonds
Water hardness varies with location and source, and is promarily a result of high calcium and magnesium ion content, although other metal ions contribute to the problem. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) considers water to be hard if it contains greater than 60 mg/L of CaCO3. People who live in areas with hard water often see this problem as a build-up of lime scale on tubs, sinks, faucets, and other surfaces frequently exposed to water.
Properties of Ionic compounds
Forming Ionic Compounds
Ionic Compound: a compound composed of cations and anions.
Chemistry and You
Chapter 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
Mg2+ and N3- = Mg3N2
Ionic bonds forms when 1 or more ectrons are transferred between atoms. The atoms that lose electrons become cations and the atoms that gain electrons become anions. Both these ions have an electron configuration with a stable or full octet.
Na+ and Cl- = NaCl
Ca2+ an O2- = CaO
Li+ and O2- = Li2O
What charactristics of sodium and chlorine atoms allow them to form a stable compound?
Sodium atoms can lose an electron easily and Chlorine atoms can accept and electron easily.
How many protons are in a sodium atom?
How many electrons are in a sodium atom?
What is the charge on a sodium atom?
What is the charge on a sodium cation?
How many electron are in an Na+ ion?
*Although they are composed of ions, compounds are electrically neutral.
Ionic Bonds: the electrostatic forces that holds ionic compounds together.
Electron Dot Formula: the notation used to illustrate the bonding in a compound.
Chemical Formula: shows the number of atoms of each element in the smallest representative unit of a substance.
Ex: Sodium Chloride is NaCl, Magnesium oxide is MgO
Formula Unit: the lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.
Ex: the ratio of sodium to choring in sodium chloride is 1:1. 1 molecule of sodium for 1 molecule of chlorine.
Magnesium Chloride the ratio would be be 1:2; for every 1 molecule of magnesium we need 2 molecules of Chlorine.
Hint: Balance the charges, they have to equal 0 to form an ionic compound
*Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature.
The crysatals are arranged in repeating three dimensional patterns called crystal lattices.
Ionic compounds generally have high melting points.
Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water.
Generally, water from groundwasources is harder than water from surface sources. In the U.S., most northeastern, southern, and northwestern states have predominantly soft water. Generally, hard water of varying degrees is found in the southwestern and midwestern states.