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Becky Russo

on 4 November 2012

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Transcript of CBT

Obstacle 1 Obstacle 2 Obstacle 3 Goal Start Developed by Dr. Aaron T. Beck, Cognitive Therapy (CT), or Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), is a form of psychotherapy in which the therapist and the client work together as a team to identify and solve problems. The ABC's of CBT Incorrect example:
Your partner treats you inconsiderably; you conclude he made you angry

Correct example:
Your partner treats you inconsiderably; you assign meaning such as, “he is deliberately doing this to upset me and should not be” thus, making yourself angry
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT is used to treat a wide range of problems:
Anger problems
Body dysmorphic disorder
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Chronic pain
Eating Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
Panic Disorders
Personality Disorders
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Psychotic disorders
Relationship problems
Social Phobia
CBT focuses on the client becoming like a scientist and treat thoughts as theories about reality to be tested rather than facts.

CBT recognizes that people hold beliefs about themselves, the world, and other people. CBT aims to help these beliefs be flexible, non-extreme, and self-helping that assist the individual adapt to reality to pursue their goals.
A (actual or activating event) = C (emotional or behavioral consequence)

Incorrect but common causal relationship
Many people assume if something happens to you, it makes you feel or behave a certain way

A (actual or activating event) + B (beliefs and meanings about the events) = C (emotional or behavioral consequence)

CBT uses this formula to make sense of emotional problems
By assigning B (beliefs and meanings about the events) to the A (actual or activating event), thus making the C (emotional or behavioral consequence)
If we focus on the meanings and beliefs, the C (emotional or behavioral consequence) could have many outcomes in which the individual has control In the 1960s, while Beck was a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania, having studied and practiced psychoanalysis, Dr. Beck discovered while patients where using (“free association"- the patient is asked to say everything that enters the mind without selection) there was a parallel train of thought running that the patient was unaware of until they were guided to focus on them. As a result of his findings, Dr. Beck began to look for other ways of conceptualizing depression. He found that depressed patients experienced streams of negative thoughts that seemed to arise spontaneously. He called these cognitions “automatic thoughts.” He found that the patients’ automatic thoughts fell into three categories. The patients had negative ideas about themselves, the world and/or the future. Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive- the mental processes like thinking, everything that goes on in your mind: dreams, memories, images, thoughts, and attention

Behavior-everything you do: what you say, how you solve problems, how you act. Includes action and inaction

Therapy- a systematic approach for combating a problem, illness, or irregular condition
Applying negative meanings You can explore if the meanings assigned are causing disturbances by answering the following:

-Is the meaning I am giving to this event extreme?
-Am I drawing global conclusions from this singular event?
-Is the meaning I’m assigning to thus event loaded against me?

The way you think and feel impact the way you act and can be problematic:
-Anxiety can create avoidance
-Depression can create isolation
CBT recognizes that you are influenced by the context which you are surrounded, your environment, and it contributes to the way you think, feel and act, however, CBT maintains that you can make a difference in the way you feel by changing unhelpful ways you think and behave, even if you can’t change the environment. CBT is a goal-directed, systematic, problem-solving approach to emotional problems.
-It is aims to move you from defined emotional and behavioral problems towards goals of how you would like to feel and behave
The meanings assigned to events lead to emotional responses

Positive events normally lead to positive feelings of happiness and excitement

Negative events normally lead to negative feelings of sadness and anxiety

When meanings attached to negative events are not accurate, realistic or helpful, it can lead to thinking assigning extreme meanings, leaving the individual feeling disturbed

Drawing extreme conclusions about yourself (and the world) based on a singular experience can turn a distressing situation into a deeply disturbing one

CBT uses the work “disturbed” to refer to emotional and behavioral responses that are unhelpful and hinder the ability to adapt and cope with a negative event
Meanings Examples of the same event/different assigned meanings/different emotional response A potential girlfriend rejects you after the first date (A-event),
you may think (B-meaning/belief) “this proves I am undesirable and unlikeable”,
and feel depressed (C-emotional consequence)

A potential girlfriend rejects you after the first date (A-event),
you may think (B-meaning/belief) “I guess she didn't like me that much, oh well, not the right person for me”,
and feel disappointed (C-emotional consequence)

Flexible, realistic, balanced, and non absolute beliefs combat distorted automatic thoughts ABC's Distorted Automatic Thoughts Catastrophising: making mountains out of molehills
All-or-nothing thinking: black or white, no middle ground
Fortune telling: anticipating the worst as fact
Mind reading: assuming you know what others are thinking
Emotional reasoning: “I feel it, therefore it must be true”
Overgeneralizing: global pattern of negatives base on a single incident
Labeling: assigning global negative traits to yourself
Making Demands: should, need, ought, got to, and have to, are extreme and rigid
Mental Filtering: focusing on the one negative detail that fits your belief and dwell on it
Discounting positives: transforming a positive event into a neutral or negative one
Personalizing: interpreting negative events as being related to you, overlooking other factors
CBT and homework CBT focuses on practice and assignments to help the individual become aware of automatic thoughts, negative beliefs and help identify errors in thinking (Distorted automatic thoughts) and adjust emotions and behaviors based on understanding the thoughts that underlie them.

Practice makes perfect... sinking new thought into one's head takes repetition Doing Behavioral Experiments Describe your problem- Write down your problem and safety behaviors (things you do to try to prevent feared catastrophe)

Formulate your prediction- decide what will happen if you try out a new way of thinking or behaving in real life

Execute an experiment- Thinking of a way to test new belief in a real life situation

Examine the results- see if prediction came true, examine what you learned from the results

Beck's example of a depressed patient in the hospital...

Cognitive Behavioral Worksheet Please fill out the worksheet along with the video Modifying Automatic Thoughts CBT aims to help individuals develop beliefs that are flexible, non-extreme, and self-helping that assist the individual adapt to reality to pursue their goals. References: Aaron T. Beck, (1976) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Emotional Disorders
Elaine Iljon Foreman & Dr. Claire Polard, (2011) CBT A Practical Guide
Rhena Branch & Rob Wilson, (2010) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Dummies
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