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Bilingual Education Timeline

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Jeff Davis

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Bilingual Education Timeline

Congress' first federal language law requiring that all immigrants seeking naturalization speak English.
Nationality Act
Meyer v. Nebraska
The United States Supreme ruled that a 1919 Nebraska law restricting foreign-language education violated the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Proficiency in a foreign language was constitutional.
United States- The Melting Pot
The United States was transformed into a melting pot. Waves of immigrant from around the world flock to America in search for a better life. Bilingualism was common place; many languages were used for official and unofficial business. Education was no exception, some areas required the use of other languages along with English
Pressure to Assimilate
Bilingual instruction virtually eradicated in the United States. For Northern European immigrants assimilation was easier than other immigrants.
Nationality Act amended
English literacy required for naturalization
Brown v. Board of Education
The United States Supreme Court ruling declaring state laws that established separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.
National Defense Education Act
This act provided aid to both public and private schools at all levels to advance the areas of science, math, and modern foreign languages. The act also provided aid to English as a Second Language programs.
Rebirth of Bilingual Education
Immigrants of Cuban escaped the 1959 revolution to Dade County, Florida. In need of bilingual schools to educate their children; the Coral Elementary School provided a education that sought to gain literacy in both English and Spanish in students. In 1974 over 3,500 students were enrolled in bilingual education programs.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
The primary purpose of ESEA was to help schools better serve the “special educational needs of educationally deprived children".
Bilingual Education Act
The act mandated that schools provide Bilingual Education programs. In its first year, the act provided funding for 76 Bilingual Education programs and served students who spoke 14 different languages. It provided federal funding to encourage local school districts to try approaches incorporating native-language instruction. This was the first time U.S. Congress had endorsed funding for Bilingual Education.
Immigration and Nationality Act
The Act eliminated racial criteria for admission tha previously barred immigration. The Act led to the increes of immigrants from Asia and Latin America
Lau v. Nichols
Court decision guaranteed children an opportunity to a "meaningful education" regardless of their language background; if a student does not understand English instruction, they are deprived of a meaningful education. It also ensured language minority students must be ensured access to the same curriculum provided to their English-speaking peers.
Equal Educational Opportunity Act (EEOA)
It prohibits discrimination against faculty, staff, and students, including racial segregation of students, and requires school districts to take action to overcome barriers to students' equal participation. The EEOA states that no state can deny students the right to equal education by "failure by an educational agency to take 'appropriate action' to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in its instructional programs". Although the act does not mention bilingual education, but used the term "appropriate action" to describe measures Congress may take to enforce the EEOA, Congress has interpreted bilingual education as an action a school district must take to help teach non-English-speaking students how to speak English.
Bilingual Education Act Reauthorized
Native Language instruction was a requirement if schools received bilingual education grants. Bilingual education viewed as transitional.
Civil Rights Act
Title VI set a minimum standared for the education of any student by prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national orgin in the operation of a federally assisted program.
U.S Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare Memorandum
Informed Schools districts with more than 5 precent minority children that districed must offer special language instruction for students.
Lau Remedies
Approved approaches, methods, and procedures for identifying and evaluating national origin minority students' English language skills; and determining appropriate instructional treatments. Instruction on deciding when LEP children were ready for mainstream classrooms. It also provieded the professional standards to be met by teachers of language tominority children. It specify that schools should instruct elementary students through their strongest language until they could participate effectively in English-only classrooms. English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction was prescribed for all students for whom English was not the strongest language.
Title VII Reauthorized
Native language instruction can only be used to support learning only to the extent necessary to allow a child to achieve competence in English
Castaneda v. Pickard
Criteria for EL programs must be 1. based on "sound educational theory," 2. implemented with adequate resources, and 3. evaluated and proven effective.
Title VII Reauthorized
Provided for two types of bilingual programs. Transitional- EL programs and Developmental-competence in two languages
Title VII Reauthorized
Full bilingual proficiency recognized as a lawful educational goal. Provided funding dual language programs that included English speakers and programs to support Native American languages.
The act gives parents the choice to enroll their children in a Bilingual Education program, but puts a three year "time-limit" on Bilingual programs. After a student has been in school for three consecutive years, English-only instruction must commence, regardless of the student's English speaking ability.
No Child Left Behind Act
Bilingual Education Timeline
Full transcript