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The South and the Slavery Controversy
Transcript of The South and the Slavery Controversy
The cotton gin brought back the need for slaves and cotton became immensely profitable. Southern America became the source of over half worlds cotton. Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters "Cotton is King!" The Planter "Aristocracy" Slaves of the Slave System Plantation Slavery The Burdens of Bondage Life Under The Lash
The South and the Slavery Controversy 1793-1860 By 1860, free blacks in the South numbered about 250,000.
The north pretended to like blacks as a race but hated them as individuals, pretty much crippling any chance of success they had there, whilst the south hated blacks as a whole but allowed them to live as individuals with a few rights.
In the upper South, these blacks descended from the freed slaves during the Revolutionary War.
In the deep South, mulattoes were freed when the slave master eventually died.
Slave importation was banned in 1808 but smugglers openly broke the law, and the number of slaves still rose though most of the population was reproducing on its own.
Slaves are valuable and weren't put up to very dangerous tasks.
Usually, Irishmen were used to do that sort of work.
Louisiana housed over half of all slaves in the Southern America.
Slave auctions were held were they would be inspected and and cold heartdly sold. Slaves were treated differently every which way wherever they were located
Protective laws over slaves were hardly enforced because of the amount of difficulty to enforce
Slaves were still brought up around the standard two parent household.
In contrast to the white planters, Africans avoided marriage of first cousins.
Africans also mixed the Christian religion with their own native religion. Slaves reserved no rights or dignity and had no potential or way to acheive the so called American Dream.
Slaves actively tried to cause trouble without getting punished.
They stole food and sabotaged expensive equipment.
They often poisoned their masters’ food.
Multiple rebellions soon took form, such as the 1800 insurrection by a slave named Gabriel.
Various slave revolts occurred but most were unsuccessful.
Black leader Booker T. Washington says that paranoia of black rebellions are surfacing and the whites are degrading themselves American Colonization Society was founded to transport Blacks back to Africa in 1817, and in 1822, the Republic of Liberia was founded for Blacks to live.
Blacks had no desire to be shipped back to their country after being partially americanized.
By 1860, slaves werent all Africans, but native-born African-Americans.
Theodore Dwight Weld was against slavery.
Inspired by Charles Grandison Finney, Weld preached anti-slavery and published a pamphlet called, Slavery As It Is. Early Abolitionism Radical Abolitionism The South Lashes Back The Abolitionist Impact in the North Jan 1st, 1831, William Lloyd Garrison published "The Liberator" which started a 30-year war of words and was an indirect cause of the Civil War,
Other abolitionists idolized Garrison, such as Wendell Phillips, a Boston patrician aka “abolition’s golden trumpet”
David Walker, a Black abolitionist, published Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World in 1829.
Sojourner Truth, a freed Black woman whose fight was for black emancipation and women’s rights, and Martin Delaney, who reconsidered Black relocation to Africa, also defended for Black rights.
The greatest Black abolitionist was an escaped black man named Frederick Douglass because of his contributions to the abolitionism.
Douglass increasingly looked to politics to solve the slavery problem. They supported the Liberty Party in 1840, the Free Soil Party in 1848, and the Republican Party in the 1850s.
All abolitionists supported the Civil War as a solution to slavery. In 1832, states were moving to make the emancipation of any kind illegal. This nullification crisis of 1832 caused the voice of white southern abolitionism to be silenced.
Southern slave supporters suggested that they better their lives and introduced civility to the slaves. They believed the Bible encouraged slavery.
Northern free blacks resented the treament in south.
The slaves in the south were treated well.
The “Gag Resolution” required all antislavery appeals to be tabled without debate, which eventually caught the eyes of John Quincy Adams. Loud and active abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison were very unpopular in the north. His views and speeches were seen as disruptive and caused even other abolitionists to hate him.
In 1835, Garrison escaped a mob dragging him around town.
Reverend Elijah P. Lovejoy of Alton, Illinois, who offended the Catholic women with his printing press, was killed by a mob in 1837 and is known as an abolitionist martyr.
The Southern states owed a debt of $300 million to the North by the late 1850.
Abolitionist speeches provoked violence.
By the 1850 the Abolitionists ideas began to spread and slowly influence the Northern states. The antebellum (pre-Civil War) South was an oligarchy (government by a few elite). Only 1,733 families owned 100+ slaves in 1850. They ruled the South in a "cottonocracy." Southern women had unique roles.
She controlled her own "staff" of slaves that consisted of various occupations to take care of the household. Southern society is shrouded in myths. The scene, often shown in movies, of huge plantations with the Greek-columned "big house" overseeing hundreds of slaves was true, but only for those 1,733 families. In 1845, cotton made up 1/2 of all American exports. Also, 1/2 of the world's cotton was grown in the American South. The northern states weren't completely innocent. Shipping cotton to Europe helped revive the slave trade. The sudden rise of the "Cotton King" diminished land,despite the great profits it held. With the desire for more land, the small farmer began to get squeezed out. The small farm was often sold to the large plantation owner. Thus, the elite-run oligarchy society was perpetuated and reinforced. The White Majority The Southern society had a social ranking system that everyone was apart of. Wealthy Slave Owners Lesser Slave Owners Whites with no slaves Mountain whites Slaves The south was bitter because the north got rich from their work and suffering.
Small white families owned few slaves and worked hard on their land with them, also their slaves lived with them. Poor non-slave owning whites, still were in support of slave system. The white majority, 3/4 of the white population, owned no slaves and lived in poverty Free blacks in the south were restricted from working, forbidden from testifying against whites in court, and could not go to public schools. John Brown is a famous radical abolitionist that died after an unsuccessful raid on Harpers Ferry. Whippings were not uncommon.On the one hand, whippings were a disincentive to getting "out of line. On the other hand, excessive whippings left scars which would hurt a slave's resale value.
GRAPHIC VIDEO! Slaves were willing to do anything for a chance at freedom. The 2nd Great Awakening of the 1830's fueled a surge in the abolition movement. The Bible supported slavery. They referred to the several references of slaves in the Bible and more specifically the "curse of Ham", Noah's son and supposed patriarch of Africa, who was cursed to serve his brothers. Free Response Assess the validity of the moral, legal and economic arugments advanced by southerners in defense of the institution of slavery during the antebellum period. moral: the southerners believed that god told them that blacks were to be slaves. legal: the south saw slaves as objects but they still followed a slave code in which they fed, slaves were fed, clothed, housed and provided medical care in a minimal manner. Some argued that the constitution allowed slavery but there were many laws that allowed slavery. economic: slaves were very important to our economy because cotton was one of the staple cash crops of the country and without slaves, there would be no way to meet the quota of needed cotton. slaves also had it better than factory workers as they were fed, clothed, and sheltered whereas the factory workers were paid a tiny wage then sent them home to fend for themselves or fired them. Bibliography Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas A. Bailey.
The American Pageant: A History of the Republic. 13th
ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006.
Wikidot. Wikinotes. 03 December 2010 <http://wikinotes.wikidot.com/chapter-16-13>. By: Martin Nguyen