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Clients 1,2,4 & 5

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Danielle Burns

on 11 May 2013

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Transcript of Clients 1,2,4 & 5

By: Danielle Burns, Erika Barrack and Jennifer Peppler Clients #1,2,4 and 5 Case #1 Symptoms of Case #1:
28 weeks pregnant
overweight
constantly thirsty
frequent urination
feeling lethargic
lost some weight
Trace of protein
>2000 in glucose
No abnormal cells found
a little high in specific gravity
deep yellow color urine Conclusion Question #2 2. Urinalysis is an important diagnostic tool for the determination of medical disorders. However, urinalysis has many other uses. Describe one other reason a person may have his/her urine tested. Case #2 Urinalysis 1. Based on what you know about the function of the nephron, why should urine be free of blood cells? Conclusion Question #1 Conclusion Question #3 3. Explain why diagnostic tests are classified as a type of medical intervention. Case #2 Case #5 An 18-year-old male cross country runner who is currently training for a marathon. He feels healthy and energized and has no complaints about his health. In fact, he just finished a rather strenuous training session. Case #4 A fifteen year old female comes in for her annual physical. Her mom informs you that she is worried because the girl has been on a strict diet and has lost a great deal of weight in the past few months. She has very little energy and does not seem interested in hanging out with friends. The girl mentions that she has been losing some hair lately and she has not menstruated in over three months. Case #4 urinalysis Microscopic analysis of her urine does not reveal anything abnormal. Macroscopic analysis shows her urine color is normal and the clarity is normal. Chemical analysis shows her pH, specific gravity, protein levels and glucose levels in her urine are normal. Her ketone levels are high. Case #4 Her urinalysis helped to discover that the fifteen year old is anorexic. The ketones in the urine showed that she has been burning excessive amounts of fat. People who are anorexic do not intake enough food to provide energy to the body so the body starts to break down the fat cells in the body. This causes the person to lose a lot a weight over a long period of time thus causing malnourishment. The fifteen year old's symptoms of losing hair, having low amounts of energy and not menstruating are common in underweight patients. Case #4 Anorexia effects more body systems than the urinary system. When not enough glucose enters the body to go through cellular respiration the body has to break down the fat the body has stored. This lack of energy she feels is because the body is using the energy from fat to keep her body systems alive. Since the reproductive system is not necessary for life it is shut down to save energy so she did not menstruate. Other test that can be done
are complete blood count
and a metabolic panel Treatments include psychiatric help and making sure she eats a healthier diet to gain energy and weight. The glomerulus of the nephron is the part in which blood is filtered. Its job is to filter out waste although it does filter out the stuff we need like water and glucose, which are to be reabsorbed in other parts of the nephron, red and white blood cells should not be filtrated out of the blood vessels. Other than being diagnosed with a medical disorder urinalysis can be used to find if a person has taken, smoked, or injected drugs. A medical intervention is undertaken to help treat or cure a condition. A diagnostic test is used to identify/diagnose a recognized condition. Microscopic Analysis does not reveal any abnormalities in urine
Chemical Analysis reveals an elevated amount of protein in his urine, approximately .15 mL/dL. His pH, specific gravity, glucose, and ketone measurements came back normal.
Macroscopic Analysis reveals a slightly dark color of urine. Case #2 Urinalysis His urinalysis helped diagnose him with proteinuria. The elevated amount of protein found in his urine shows that his tubules in the nephron are damaged, which is causing the protein in his body to not be reabsorbed.
When the proteins aren't reabsorbed, they are excreted in urine Case #2 Symptoms The 18 year old athlete did not show any symptoms of proteinuria. Symptoms of Proteinuria include
Foamy urine
Swelling in hands, feet, and abdomen There are no symptoms in the early stages of proteinuria, which is why he feels healthy and energized. Case #2 Overtime proteinuria will begin to affect the muscular system due to the exceeding rate of protein loss. No further tests are needed to diagnose the patient with proteinuria. Treatments include:
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) medications to lower blood pressure and protect kidney function
Dietician consultation and a healthy meal plan
Diuretics (Drugs causing an increased passing of urine) Results:
Gestational diabetes A 40 year old, overweight, pregnant woman comes in for her routine appointment. She is 28 weeks pregnant, complaining that she is constantly thirsty and saying that she spends all of her time running to the bathroom. She has been feeling more lethargic than normal lately and she has lost some weight. No abnormal cells were found in her urine sample. This disorder is indirect because when you have the baby this disorder will go away. Other test are:
Oral Glucose Tolerance
Three-Hour Glucose Tolance Treatment plans:
Changes in your diet
Regular exercise
Insulin
Glyburide
Glucose montoring
test to see how your baby is doing A 9 year old male is brought in by his mother because he is complaining constant thirst and frequent urination. Th problem is so bad that the boy is having trouble sleeping because he is constantly getting up to use the bathroom. A few times, he has even wet the bed. The mother suspect something wrong with the pituitary gland as there is a family history of pituitary problems. Microscopic analysis of his urine does not reveal anything abnormal. Sympotoms:
moderate levels of leukocytes
pituitary problems
constantly thirsty
frequent urination
clear color urine Results:
Diabetes insipidus This disorder relates directly to other human systems because is disorder is caused by pituitary problems. Other test:
Water deprivation test
MRI Treatment options:
Desmopressin (nasal spray, oral tablet or injection)
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