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Battle of Shiloh

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MaryElizabeth Simkevich

on 21 October 2013

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Transcript of Battle of Shiloh

April 6-7, 1862
Battle of Shiloh
Union victories forced Confederates into defenses around Corinth, Tennessee
Gen. Grant followed retreating Confederates and concentrated his army at Pittsburg Landing along the Tennessee River.
Gen. Grant planned a summer offensive and awaited the arrival Gen. Buell with his Army of the Ohio
Gen. Johnston (Confederate) knew he had to attack before Buell arrived with reinforcements, and moved toward Pittsburg Landing on April 6 completely surprising the unprepared Northerners
Union western flank finally held at Shiloh Church
to the east, Union troops delayed the attack in a peach orchard and the "Hornet's Nest"
Primary Source
- Holt Collier:
- " 'I did not see my old colonel [Colonel Howell] again until we met on the battlefield of Shiloh' he remembered. 'Holt,' said the colonel, ' I have been worried a heap about you.' Yes sir,' Collier replied,' but I got as good a chance as you.' "
- "...soldiers were falling thick and fast..."
- " He was only 'a few yards away,' when Albert SIdney Johnston... was struck in the thigh, '...he died in a short while.' "
- Though the Yankees had lost 13,000 men [only 2,500 more than Confederates], Collier recalls men saying "the North whupped."
- Quotes from The Slaves War written by Andrew Ward and published in 2008 by Houhgington Mifflin Company
Impact
- Worst Battle on U.S. soil to date

- Casualties = 13,000 North; 11,000 South

- Union victory (and the taking of Corinth in May) would eventually contribute to placing Tennessee and Kentucky under Union control

- Proof that changing weaponry and technology would require new battle tactics

- Ruined hopes for a "quick" war
When/Where
Why
Confederacy: Gen. Albert S. Johnston, Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard
- Union forces, led by Ulysses S. Grant were positioned north up the Mississippi River from Corinth

- Waiting for reinforcement from General Buell and 20,000 plus troops attacking Corinth

- While Union troops waited, Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston and troops launched a surprise attack on the Union camps
Union: Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, Gen. Don Carlos Buell
Who
Why (continued)
- Johnston's original battle plan included three corps positioned in parallel lines

- Due to unfamiliar territory (deep ravines, streams, farm fields, scattered forests) the corps became confused and scattered

- The surprised federal units were able to recover in a faster and more efficient manner than Johnston expected
Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee
Works Cited
Columbia University, Press. "Shiloh, Battle Of." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2013): 1. History Reference Center. Web. 23 Sept. 2013.
Jordan, Robert Paul. The Civil War. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1969. Print
Groom, Winston. Shiloh, 1862. Washington, D.C.:
National Geographic Society, 2012. Print.
Lanning, Michael Lee. The Civil War 100: The Stories behind the Most Influential Battles, People and Events in the War between the States. Naperville, IL: Source, 2006. Print.
HO. US-CIVIL WAR-ULYSSES S. GRANT. Agence France Presse. 03 Aug. 2001. eLibrary. Web. 02 Oct. 2013
Handout. PIERRE BEAUREGARD MCT. Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Service. 03 Jun. 2008. eLibrary. Web. 02 Oct. 2013.
Hulton Archive. Don Carlos Buell. Getty Images. 01 Jan. 1865. eLibrary. Web. 02 Oct. 2013.
"Albert Sydney Johnston." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2013.
Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2013.
MPI. Grant At Shiloh. Getty Images. 06 Apr. 1862. eLibrary. Web. 02 Oct. 2013
"Hornet’s Nest." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2013.
"Sunken Road." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2013
Sheehan-Dean, Aaron. "Confederate Morale During the Civil War." Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 19 Sept. 2012. Web. 4 Oct. 2013.
"Battle of Shiloh 1862." Memphis Commercial Appeal. Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group, n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2013.
Simon, Y, John. "Grant at Shiloh." Cobblestone. 01. NOv. 2012: 18. eLibrary. Web. 01. Oct. 2013
Wert, D, Jeffry. "Shiloh: Johnston's Bold Stroke Falls Short." Civil War Times Illustrated. 01. Oct. 2007: 15. eLibrary. Web. 01 Oct. 2013.
Kingseed, C, Cole. "Shiloh's Significance." Army. 01. Sep. 2012: 83. e Library. Web. 01. Oct. 2013
McCaskill, A, Dan. "To Holt Collier Private; Company 1, 9th Texas Calvary." Sons of Confederate Veterans. 11 Nov. 2005. Web. 7 Oct. 2013
What
Fun Fact: The battle received its name from Shiloh church which was located on the site of the battle field
MaryElizabeth Simkevich and Emily Blay
What (cont'd)
Union defenders also battled at the Sunken Road
Gen. Johnston was killed leaving second-in-command P.G.T. Beauregard head of the Confederate troops
during the night of the 6th, Gen. Buell arrived w/ reinforcements. Union counterattack on the second day drove the rebels back
Gen. Beauregard retreated back toward Corinth
although heavy losses were sustained on both sides, the Union was victorious
the battle at Shiloh took the initiative away from the Confederates, forcing them back onto the defensive
Federal riverboats at Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River
Analysis:
Origin: date unknown
Purpose: To provide a perspective of the people the war was essentially being fought over, a unique point of view
Value:
Holt Collier was born into slavery and told to remain on his plantation during the war (though given free papers). He disobeyed and joined the 9th Texas Calvary showing that many slaves felt they had an obligation to fight alongside their masters.
Here, the Confederates refused to admit defeat, even though the Union still had the potential to win the battle in the fighting to follow the next day.
Limitation:
Slaves were often sheltered from important information and influenced largely by their masters opinions
The camp of one of the Federal units spread across the battlefield at Pittsburg Landing
General Ulysses S. Grant leading a charge at Pittsburgh, Tennessee
the Sunken Road
the Hornet's Nest
General Ulysses S Grant rallying his troops
Full transcript