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A Tour Through the Digestive System

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Sydney Martin

on 5 May 2014

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Transcript of A Tour Through the Digestive System

The Mouth
-Chewing breaks down large pieces of food,
mechanical digestion.
-This is where
ingestion
takes place and
digestion
begins
-The
salivary glands
secrete saliva, mucus and
amylase,
the enzyme used to break down carbohydrates, to begin to breakdown the nutrients, this is
chemical digestion
Epiglottis
- a small flap that closes over the
larynx
to prevent food from entering the larynx and trachea.
-After passing the epiglottis the bolus continues along the
esophagus
- The broken down food is swallowed and is now called
bolus.
Esophagus
- The esophagus takes the bolus down to the
stomach
through smooth muscle contractions called
persistalis
Stomach
- Has two sphinctors:
cardiac
and
pyloric
,
cardiac allows food in from the esophagus and pyloric releases it into the duodenum.
- Mechanical Digestion: Churning from the stomach muscles.
- Chemical Digestion:
Hydrocloric
acid and
pepsinogen
, the enzyme used to break down proteins, break down nutrients.
- Due to the strength of the enzymes the stomach lining must replace itself every 3 days.
Duodenum
- First part of the
small intestine
- The partially digested food is now called
chyme
- The
liver
releases
bile
and the
pancreas
releases the
enzymes: amylase
(carbs.) ,
protase
(proteins) and
lipase
(fats).
- The
gall bladder
stores bile for when there is a large amount of fat in the chyme.
Jejunum
- The second part of the
small intestine

- It's lining specializes in the absorption of
monosaccharides
(fully digested carbs.) and
amino acids
(fully digested proteins)
- Uses
villi
to absorb nutrients (see next slide)
Villi
-Line the
small intestine
- After fats are broken down by
bile
,
Fat soluble vitamins
are absorbed into the lymph vessels and then make their way into the blood stream
Ileum
- Absorbs mainly
B12
used for a healthy nervous system, building red blood cells and using energy from nutrients, and bile salts through the
villi
- The third and final part of the
small intestine.
- Walls are thinner than the
jejunum
or
duodenum
Cecum
Ascending Colon
Transverse Colon
Descending Colon
Rectum
A TOUR THROUGH THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
- Small, blind pouch before going up into the
ascending colon.
- Smaller in humans than in herbivores.
- Connected to the
appendix
-
Rugae
, the ridges produced by the folding of the wall, allow the stomach to expand
- First part of the
large intestine.
- Receives waste material from
cecum
, uses
pertalsis
and secretes
mucus,
for lubricant, to continue to move it along into the
transverse colon
- Absorbs
fluids
and
salts
, used for fluid balance, nerve transmitting, muscle & nerve function, blood pressure and heartbeat, and lubricates contents with
mucus
- Uses
perstalsis
to move contents.
- Covered in
microvilli
- Contain a
lacteal,
connected to a
lymphatic vessel.
B:
Energy release, coordination, healthy nervous system, use of nutrients
K
: Blood clotting
Sodium
: Fluid balance, muscle & nerve function, & blood pressure.
Chloride
: Fluid balance, transmit nerve signals
- Second part of
large intestine
B:
Energy release, coordination, healthy nervous system, use of nutrients
K
: Blood clotting
Sodium
: Fluid balance, muscle & nerve function, & blood pressure.
Chloride
: Fluid balance, transmit nerve signals
- Uses
perstalsis
and secretes
mucus,
for lubricant, to continue to move the waste material along to the
descending colon.
- Third part of the
large intestine
-Absorbs water and vitamins:
B:
Energy release, coordination, healthy nervous system, use of nutrients
K
: Blood clotting
Sodium
: Fluid balance, muscle & nerve function, & blood pressure.
Chloride
: Fluid balance, transmit nerve signals
- Uses
perstalsis
and secretes
mucus,
for lubricant, to continue to move the waste material along to the
sigmoid colon
- Hold waste products until they are eliminated through the
anus.
- The undigested material stored here is called
feces.
-Final part of the digestive system
- Contains two sphincters:
internal (smooth muscle)
and
external (skeletal muscle)
- Where
feces
is eliminated from the body
Works Cited
-"The Digestive System." The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center . N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/digestive_disorders/digestive_system/Pages/index.aspx>.
-"TheVisualMD Health Centers - Cancer - Colorectal Cancer - Colon Anatomy Function ." TheVisualMD HealthCare Educational Resources. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://www.thevisualmd.com/health_centers/cancer/colorectal_cancer/colon_anatomy_function>.
-"The Structure and Function of the Digestive System." Cleveland Clinic . N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041>.
-"The Large Intestine." BecomeHealthyNow.com - Your Source for Natural Health Care with Results. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://www.becomehealthynow.com/article/bodydigestive/787>.
-Dulson, Jacqueline, Maurice Giuseppe, and Douglas Fraser. Nelson Biology 11. Toronto: Nelson Education, 2011. Print.
-"Digestive System, Digestion Information, Digestive System Facts, News, Photos -- National Geographic." Science and Space Facts, Science and Space, Human Body, Health, Earth, Human Disease - National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/digestive-system-article/>.
Metabolism
- The process involving a set of chemical reactions, that modifies a molecule into another for storage, or for immediate use in another reaction, or as a by product.
- Metabolism includes process for cell growth, reproduction, response to environment, survival mechanisms, sustenance, and maintenance and integrity.
- It is made up of two categories: catabolism (destructive) and anabolism (constructive)
- Metabolism. (2008, September 16). - definition from Biology-Online.org,
Retrieved May 5th, 2014, from http;//www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Metabolism
Anus
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