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Human Impact: A Survey of Human Stupidity AP Biology 2013

Credit for this goes to David Knuffke. I've just turned this into a useable template for others.
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Matthew Landry

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Human Impact: A Survey of Human Stupidity AP Biology 2013

Human Impact: A Survey of Human Stupidity
How It Works
You are assigned one aspect of human impact to investigate and report on.

You will report on your investigations in the frame that has your aspect as a title.
What you can do:
Include all of the information/items required (really, you have to do that).
Change colors, font orientations, select from the three font options in the text window.
Insert any shapes, lines, arrows, etc., as necessary.
Move and resize any elements in your frame.
You must include:
A description of what the impact is, and its cause.
A description of multiple effects that come from the impact.
A description of at least two things that could be done to minimize the impact on the environment.
Pictures with hyperlink reference citations.
Embed a video clip about some aspect of the impact.
References to at least three sources where people can learn more about the impact (wikipedia is not acceptable--several of these are controversial topics).
What you can't do:
Resize your frame.
Change your frame type.
Alter the font colors, choices, etc., on a GLOBAL basis (stay out of the Colors & Fonts menu).
Provide/link to any low quality or inappropriate resource.
References
Things That Can Be Done
Description/Cause
Effects
References
Seventh Addition Biology, campbell reese
Things That Can Be Done
Description/Cause
Effects
References
Things That Can Be Done
Description/Cause
References
Things That Can Be Done
Description/Cause
Effects
What is it?
Effects
Things That Can Be Done
Things That Can Be Done
Description/Cause
Effects
-.http://books.google.com/books?id=5i1hCNRDtVUC&pg=PA286&lpg=PA286&dq=infectious+agents+in+landfills&source=bl&ots=p6Mxic12qY&sig=ChyAtQDE7Fjch1E2SDVzyCxju4w&hl=en&sa=X&ei=axtXUsrZL-mMyAHEzID4AQ&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=infectious%20agents%20in%20landfills&f=false

-http://livelifegreen.com/landfills-and-th-environmental-effects/

-http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/recycling-helped-reduce-landfill-use
References
Global Warming/Climate Change
Things That Can Be Done
Effects
References
Overexploitation of Natural Resources
Things That Can Be Done
Effects
References
Description/Cause
Things That Can Be Done
Effects
References
References
Description/Cause:
Things That Can Be Done
Effects
References
Effects
Deforestation
Introduction of Invasive Species
Ozone Depletion
Landfill Pollution
Water Pollution
- A place to dispose waste materials buy burying and covering it.

-Humans pay for companies to come and take their trash to landfills- an average of 4.5lbs per person per day

-Dumped in a huge pile- usually underground and airtight so oxygen and moisture cannot break down material
Decrease in Biological diversity
Genetic diversity -micro evolution becomes impossible
Loss of plant species (e.g. 8-60% of plant species in prairie fragments of Wisconsin were lost)
Clearing of tree and plants net effect increases concentration of CO2 in atmosphere (.4% annually)
Climate imbalance
natural processes
Destruction of biological diversity
by eliminating habitats of organisms
by clearing trees. Central America and Mexico were greatly affected, 98% of tropical rainforests here were cut down

Deforestation occurs for several reasons:
to acquire land
increasing demands for resources & fuel
agricultural expansion
urbanization
desertification of land
petrochemicals --> soil erosion
Description: ODS are in lower atmosphere and naturally move to upper atmosphere.
They are broken down by strong ultra violet light.
They then pull one oxygen from the Ozone (O3) and create 02 (dioxide) and their own compound.
The Ozone is no longer 03, but instead 02 and depleted.
This causes increased ultra violet levels that cause the main problems.
Fracking
-Carbon dioxide and other gases becoming trapped in the atmosphere causing the sun's heat to become trapped and heat up the planet
Harm to animals and humans:
Skin cancers, and premature aging.
Cataracts, blindness, eye diseases.
Weaker immune system.
Invasive species are introduced to a a different, non-native environment
This is done by humans sometimes for pure enjoyment like the bird watchers who introduced starlings to New York, or to control other species in the environment
Accidental introductions occur during careless transport or due to the lack of cleaning of objects
Invasive species invade and take the resources (nutrients, water, space) of the native species who are not adapted to defend against the non-native species
-Things that emit an abnormal amount of CO2 and other gases that become trapped in the atmosphere
Agriculture Harm:
Crops have reduced growth.
Wheat, corn, rice, barley, oats, peas, soybeans, tomatoes and cucumbers.
Description and Cause
Nitrogen, a common nutrient in inorganic fertilizers and animal manure, can pass through the soil and contaminate the ground
water. Other sources
include lawn fertilizers,
septic systems, and
domestic animals.
Nitrate is soluble and
can easily pass through the soil. The nitrate can remain in the soil for decades and slowly accumulate.
Damage to marine life:
Plankton are threated by the increased ultra violet.
This could impact the food webs as plankton are near the bottom.
Reduces biodiversity in oceans and lakes.
- methane production occurs

- environment is exposed to chemicals.

- Birds and other animals

Ice melting
Falling number of penguins
Sea level is rising faster
Some species moving farther north
Increased precipitation
Exhaustion - Overfishing, overgrazing, and overlumbering
Materials:
Wood, plastic, rubber and fabrics are degraded by UV levels.
This costs a lot of money from construction repairs!
Prevention:
Do not refill refrigerators, freezers, and air conditioners. (Contain chlorofluorocarbon)
Make sure air conditioner is not leaking.
Do not use portable fire extinguishers that have halons.
New technologies in cars- can run on less gas and run cleaner
Modernize power plants- now can generate electricity from nonpolluting sources and cut electricity use
www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/f101.asp

environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/

Raven, Peter H., and Linda R. Berg. Environment. 5th ed. Danvers: Wiley, 2006. 479-82. Print.
- 50% of the gases produced is methane
- 5% methane = explosive
- methane may double the effects of global warming.
- 20x more potent that CO2

movement corridor- habitats connecting other habitats that reduce possible isolation.
Biological Augmentation- adding previously lost minerals back to the environment (encourages rapid regrowth)
Animals - songbirds coping with loss of homes
Reduce Effects:
Protect skin from UV light.
Especially in summer (direct sunlight).
Kill native species
Can take over their specific food chain because they don't have natural predators in that environment (Pythons)
Non-native species will out compete native plants for resources
If nitrate is in the water when consumed, it reacts with hemoglobin in human blood and other animals to make methemoglobin. Methemoglobin does not carry oxygen efficiently, so it causes a
reduced oxygen supply, especially in
infants or pregnant women. If not
treated, pregnant women that have
consumed nitrate may have
miscarriages or birth deformities in
the child. If an infant consumes nitrate and is not treated quickly, death may come as a result. Animals, if the nitrate is consumed, can get nitrate poisoning.
http://www.hdwallpaperstop.com/penguin-wallpapers/
The process where millions of gallons of fluid - typically water, sand, and chemicals, including ones known to to cause cancer - are injected underground at high pressure to fracture the rock surrounding an oil or gas well. This releases extra oil and gases from the rock, so it can flow into the well.
http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/mguidry/Unnamed_Site_2/Chapter%202/Chapter2C2.html
Air pollution
Water pollution
Contamination of drinking water
Soil and Oil Spill Contamination
Flammable water
-contains VOCs (volatile organic compounds) including carcinogens that add up to parts per million
-very few landfills in US have liners and filters to prevent these chemicals from seeping into environment
E.x. Battery fluid, gasoline, antifreeze, fire/smoke detectors containing radioactive isotopes
-animals, especially birds, can die from waste that they eat or get caught in
-seepage drains into nearby streams and rivers and can impact other organisms associated with the water
Three R's: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Composting- forming carbon dioxide instead of methane in decomposition
-Recycling can divert 60 million tons of garbage yearly that would originally be going into landfills
-That's about 32% of all of our waste!
Modern landfill for the Great Lakes with layer of mulch covering to convert methane to carbon dioxide
http://www.greatlakes.nsw.gov.au/News_Directory/Landfill_Methane_Output_Reduced
http://news.discovery.com/earth/videos/earth-whats-an-ocean-garbage-patch.htm
Ozone Depletion
Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
http://worldwildlife.org/threats/illegal-wildlife-trade
African Elephant
"Height: 5-14 ft at shoulders (males); females of all subspecies are smaller than males."
"Length: Up to 30 ft trunk to tail."
"Weight: 6,000-15,000 lbs (males)".
"Lifespan Up to 70 years."
450,000 - 700,000 left in the wild
2011, "...broke the record for the amount of illegal ivory seized worldwide, at 38.8 tons (equaling the tusks from more than 4,000 dead elephants). Law enforcement officials say the sharp increase in large seizures is a clear sign that organized crime has slipped into the ivory underworld, because only a well-oiled criminal machine..."
Tigers
"Height: 3/3 ½ feet (.9 - 1.1m) at shoulders."
"Length: Head and body length 4.6 - 9.2 feet (tail length 2-3 feet)"
"Weight:
The Siberian tiger males weigh 400-675 lbs
The Sumatran tiger weigh in from around 220-310 lbs"
"Lifespan 10-15 years"
What's Left?
"Bengal tiger: Less than 2,000
Indochinese tiger: 750-1,300
Siberian tiger: Around 450
Sumatran tiger: 400-500
Malayan tiger: 600-800
South Chinese tiger: Extinct in the wild
Caspian tiger: Extinct
Javan tiger: Extinct
Bali tiger: Extinct"
http://www.defenders.org/elephant/basic-facts
http://www.defenders.org/tiger/basic-facts
Ecosystem Effects:
-Diversity
-Top Predators
-Unbalanced

Illegal trade
Poverty
High Demand=Lots of Money
5-7 lbs. Rhino Tusk = $200,000+
1 lbs. Elephant Tusk = $1,000
$10-20 billion market
Poachers=Locals
Masterminds making all the money remain safe
Kill Exotic Creatures
Furs
Tusks
Rhino Tusks believed to cure cancer
Elephant Tusks used because of the ivory
Donate to organizations like World Wildlife Fund
Don't buy products
No buyers=No poaching
http://worldwildlife.org/pages/stop-wildlife-crime


http://www.bcairquality.ca/101/ozone-depletion-impacts.html
over harvesting
No return
Example is Deforestation
Campbell Biology Book 7th Editiion
WoodTV8 News
io9.com
Department for Environment, Food, & Rural Affairs
http://www.cnbc.com/id/47437618
taxes
Alternatives
Some non-renewable
Adjustments
Avoid fracking around wells
DON'T DO IT
Climate change and peak oil (limits to the available supply of oil)
http://www.catskillmountainkeeper.org/our-programs/fracking/whats-wrong-with-fracking-2/health-impacts/
http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/health/case_studies/hydrofracking_w.html
Don't let pets loose into the environment. For example, goldfish or pythons which thrive in a non-native area because they have no predators
Tighter restrictions can be made on the transportation of goods
Do not dispose of non native plants near a water source, fragments of plants can be left behind and grow (Pond plants example)
Clean boat thoroughly before moving to a different body of water
Clean objects such as hiking gear when moving from one place to another
Excessive water consumption causes arid and desert like land plots difficult for growing.
Deforestation
http://sukriti2.blogspot.com/2012/07/are-we-overusing-our-natural-resources.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overexploitation

http://www.china.org.cn/english/business/221411.htm
The clearing of earth's trees on a massive scale
The biggest cause of deforestation is agriculture
Farmers clear land to plant crops
Trees are cut down and sold for paper and wood
Trees are cleared to make room for more people
Areas the size of Panama are cut down every year
Some deforestation occurs from natural causes, such as forest fires
Farmers can limit the amount of nitrogen applied to crops, or some can do strictly organic farming. For already contaminated water, distillation, osmosis, ion-exchange, and blending can be used for purification and reduction of nitrates.
http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/nutrients/pubs/wcp_v39_no12/
http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/crops/00517.html
http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/09/what-is-it-about-an-elephants-tusks-that-make-them-so-valuable/262021/
Farmers can limit the amount of nitrogen applied to crops, or some can do strictly organic farming. For already contaminated water, distillation, osmosis, ion-exchange, and blending can be used for purification and reduction of nitrates.
Loss of Habitat for many species
The sun may dry out soil where the trees used to be creating a barren desert
Removing trees leads to more extreme temperature changes which can be harmful to plants and animals
Trees remove greenhouse gases, with less trees there are more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which leads to an increase in global warming
Clear Cutting needs to be eliminated completely, it destroys too much habitat
A plan should be put in place where trees are planted for every tree cut down
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation-overview/
Full transcript