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Origins

The History of Christianity, from the Red Sea to the Reformation.
by

Sam Bell

on 14 April 2014

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Transcript of Origins

Protestantism technically began with Martin Luther, who in 1517 wrote the Ninety-Five Theses against Catholic Church practices, namely the practice of "indulgences", the freeing of sin by paying a fee to the church. Luther's followers founded the Lutheran Church, and several other sects were later created, in an event known as the Reformation.

Major shared beliefs of Protestants include:
Universal rejection of the Pope as the voice of God.
Justification through faith, not by good works.
Literal interpretation of the Bible
Consubstantiation instead of transubstantion, or belief that instead of bread and wine literally changing into the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist, that it remains bread and wine, but Christ is present in the ceremony.
Major branches of Protestantism include Lutheranism, Anglicanism, Anabaptism, Calvinism, and Presbyterianism.



http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/English_Literature/religion/PROTESTANTISM.html




Protestantism
Catholicism
Is said to have been founded after Jesus was resurrected
centered in Vatican city
head of the Catholic church is the pope
Worship in Cathedrals
Orthodox Christian



Religiously
They are closely related to Catholics but very different
Culturally
Greek Orthodox Churches tended to be more philosophical, abstract and mystical in their thoughts.
Latin Orthodox Churches leaned to a more pragmatic and legal-minded approach
Political
The Christian Orthodox Church Split upon the death of Emperor Constantine into the Eastern or "Greek Orthodox" and the Western or "Roman Catholic"
The Crusades came to the aid of the East Orthodox Church because of the attacks from the Turks
The Fourth Crusade (1200-1204) occupied Constantinople (home of the Greek Orthodox (west) church) which caused great tension between the churches
O r i g i n s
Cathedrals
sagrada familia
The floor plan is usually cross shaped
Entrance is usually on the west side of the building
designed by Antonio Gaudi
located in Barcelona, Spain
construction began in 1882 and continues today
F a m o u s F i g u r e s i n C h r i s t i a n i t y
Jesus- the son of God, founder of Christianity
Constantine- Byzantine emperor that converted to Christianity, and established Christianity as the main religion of the Byzantine Empire.
Martin Luther- A German monk who disapproved of the Church's wealth, and wrote down 95 theses on what should be done about the church when a friar came to his town selling indulgences. His ideas started the reformation and eventually led to protestantism.
John Calvin- Another highly religious man much like Martin Luther, who opposed the authority of the Church to spread his beliefs of individual independence from the activities of the Church. These beliefs founded Calvinism along with other new denominations of Christianity.






The Crusades
The first event that led to the Crusades was the rise of the Seljuk Turks, who took control of the holy city of Jerusalem from the Christians in 1065. Soon after, the Turks began to spread and eventually threatened the Christian city of Constantinople. The Byzantine Emperor called for help from the Pope to save the Christian empire from the Muslims.
Pope Urban II's 1095 Clermont sermon is usually considered the beginning of the Crusades.
Eleven major Crusades were launched by various European empires from 1095-c.1453, in an effort to take back the holy land and help the Byzantines, but after numerous failed military expeditions, the last Christian kingdom in the Holy Land, Acre, was conquered and in 1453 Constantinople was lost to the Muslims.
Clermont Cathedral
Medieval Christianity
The Dark Ages:
Before and after the fall of Rome, Christianity was quickly emerging as the dominate European religion. It made attacks on other "Pagan" religions by destroying their shires and converting their people. This is where Christianity is blamed as furthering Europe's decline in the Dark Ages and creating generations of the ignorant. Monks and dedicated Christians now preserved many of the Christian teachings through the preservation and copying the holy scripts. Soon the monasteries were also transformed into centers of learning for the populace as most of Europe spiraled into the Dark Ages.

Recovery after the Fall of Rome:
From the quagmire of the Dark Ages rose the brief empire under Charlemagne who had managed to unify most of southern Europe which included all of France, parts of Spain, and Switzerland. Charlemagne was one of the first powers to emerge after the fall of Rome and set a trend of acknowledgment toward the power of the church when Charlemagne decided to remain submissive to the pope's authority. Along with the power of Charlemagne's Frankish empire, England and a scattered Christian Germany controlled most of northern Europe, and the Pope controlled Italy. Unfortunately a call for help from a weakened Byzantine Empire called much of western Europe's attention to the threat of Islam and eventually lead to the Crusades.

The Spanish Inquisition
Happened when Spain wanted to choose a national religion
Spain chose Catholicism
The rulers of Spain persecuted any non-Catholics
Happened between 1478-1834
The Christians thought that they were doing the non-believers a favor.
Orthodox Christian Churches
The first Orthodox Christian Church was founded on the Glorious Day of the Pentecost. 33 A.D. Fifty days after the Lord's Resurrection
W o r k s C i t e d
http://www.allaboutreligion.org/origin-catholic-religion-faq.htm
http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/English_Literature/religion/Christianity.html#Relevant
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/spain/barcelona-sagrada-familia
http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/WestEurope/SpanInqui.html
http://fineartamerica.com/featured/christian-orthodox-church-1-ladi-kirn.html
http://www.christian-history.org/medieval-christianity-2.html
http://www.askwhy.co.uk/christianity/0000ndxdarkages.php
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/crus/hd_crus.htm
Christianity
Holidays
Orthodox Christianity

Christmas is celebrated on January 7th

The 40 days following up to Easter most Orthodox christians begin to start strict fasting. Which is call lent. Also most Orhtodox Christians attend liturgies during the Holy Week that leads up to Easter Sunday.

Four main fast periods are included in the year. They are:
The Great Fast (Lent)--beginning on a Monday 7 weeks before Easter.
Fast of the Apostles--varying in length from 1 to 6 weeks; it begins on a Monday, 8 days after Pentecost, and ends on June 28--the eve of the feast of Saints Peter and Paul.
Fast of the Repose of the Virgin Mary--August 1 to 14.
Christmas Fast--lasting 40 days, from November 15 to December 24.

The "twelve great feasts," as they occur in chronological order after September 1, are as follows:
1.The Nativity of the Virgin Mary (September 8)
2.The Elevation of the Life-giving Cross (September 14)
3.The Presentation of the Virgin Mary in the Temple (November 21)
4.Christmas (December 25)
5.Epiphany (January 6)
6.The Presentation of Christ in the Temple (February 2)
7.The Annunciation (March 25)
8.Palm Sunday (the Sunday before Easter)
9.The Ascension (40 days after Easter)
10.Pentecost (50 days after Easter)
11.The Transfiguration (August 6)
12.The Repose of the Virgin Mary (August 15)



Emergence :

Christianity originally formed from Judaism when Jesus's teachings influenced a splintered group of Jews to follow him in the 1st century C.E. They slowly accepted his teachings since they were more appealing than the life laws of the jewish faith and eventually became the first Christians.
Growth :
Through wars and conflicts in Christian ideology, the Christians separated themselves from the Romans, and eventually themselves. Thus when the Romans encountered the Christians, they persecuted the Christians for their differences often blaming them in times of hardship most notably for the fact that early Christians refused to believe the Roman Emperor was divine. Although, as the Roman Empire began to decline, the wheel of Christianity was set in motion. The Byzantine empire converted, along with parts of North Africa, then part of western Europe, and then soon almost all of western Europe as the Western Roman Empire dissolved into individual kingdoms.
How Christianity Influences the World
Throughout history Christianity has been used to influence the world 3 ways
1. As a Scapegoat
2. As a Catalyst
3. As a Motivation
As a Scapegoat
As a Catalyst
As a Motivation
Christianity was mostly used as a scapegoat during its time under Rome. This was when the Romans would blame their misfortunes on the Christians whether it be a natural disaster or an outbreak of the plague. Here Christianity was forced to influence the world by taking the blame that the already stressed Roman Empire couldn't bear.
1.
2.
3.
Darn
Christians
No
Christianity might not have been behind all the things the Romans blamed it for, but it did escalate many conflicts. A well known example would be the Crusades where the Byzantine Empire called for Christian western Europe for help against its enemies. Instead of helping the Byzantines, Christianity and its struggle with Islam along with shady Italians opposed to the Byzantines, sacked Constantinople and the other holdings of the Byzantine Empire leading to further Crusades.
Byzantine Empire
We see now that Christianity
can be blamed for events, make
events worse, but can it create
events that influence history.
The answer to that would be yes, Christianity does create events that influence the world. An example of this would the be formation of the Byzantine Empire. Without Christianity it can be said that the eastern Roman Empire would have fallen along with its twin, the western Rome Empire. Although through the East's new main religion, Christianity, they were able to stay united and form the Byzantine Empire.
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