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Evolution Mind Map

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Gena Cooke

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Evolution Mind Map

Evolution By Gena Cooke Mutations neutral mutation: harmful mutation: beneficial mutation: mutation that doesn't result in an advantage or disadvantage any mutation that reduces the reproductive success and is selected against any mutation that increases the reproductive success (favoured by natural selection, also accumulates over time) All species portray genetic variation due to, (among other things) the neutral, harmful and beneficial mutations in the DNA. Mutations Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Prezygotic Mechanism: a reproductive isolating mechanism that prevents interspecies mating and fertilization Postzygotic Mechanism: a reproductive isolating mechanism that prevents maturation and reproduction in offspring from interspecies reproduction The only way a new species can form is if they stay reproductively isolated from the rest of the population. Prezygotic and postzygotic mechanisms (which are reproductive isolating mechanisms) help with the reproductive isolation. Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Reproductive Isolating Mechanism: any behavioral, structural or biochemical trait that prevents individuals of different species form reproducing successfully together Evolutionary Researchers CHARLES DARWIN: famous researcher who created many accurate theories about evolution, rode the THOMAS MALTHUS: developed the Essay on the Principle of Population, which aided Charles Darwin in his research. His essay explained population growth to show that all populations were limited in size by their environment GEORGE CUVIER: paleontologist who conducted the first detailed study of fossils. He also discovered the theory of catastrophism which is the theory that the pattern of fossils could be accounted for by a series of global catastrophes that wiped out most species on Earth. JEAN LAMARK: developed the use and disuse theory, which is how used structures became larger and stronger and unused structures become smaller and weaker CHARLES LYELL: a geologist who developed a theory opposite to Cuiver's theory of catastrophism. His theory of uniformitarianism which explained that the geological changes are slow and gradual and that natural laws and processes have not changed over time uniformitarianism and catastrophism are two
theories that completely contradict each other. LINK GEORGE BUFFON: a scientist who discovered that anatomical features, such as the unused pig toes (a vestigial feature), served no purpose. He believed that species were originally in perfect form but had changed over time. Evolutionary Researchers These 6 men helped the formation of the understanding of evolution in species. Catastrophism and uniformitarianism are two contradicting theories about how the earth evolved. Homologous, Analogous and Vestigial Features Homologous feature: a structure with a common evolutionary origin that may serve different functions in modern species Analogous feature: a structure that performs the same function as another but it is not similar in origin or anatomical structure Vestigial feature: rudimentary or non-functioning or only marginally functioning structure that is homologous to a fully functioning in closely related species Homologous, Analogous and Vestigial Features Features in the body that have evolved over time in different ways. Immutable: George Buffon's theory of a perfect form that changes over time contradicts the immutable theory. the idea that species cannot change Forms of Selection Artificial selection: directed breeding in which individuals that have a particular trait are chosen as parents of the next generation. Used to produce new breeds or varieties of plants and animals. Sexual selection: differential reproductive success cause by variation in the ability to obtain mates; results in sexual dimorphism and mating courtship behaviors. Natural selection: the way in which nature favors the reproductive success of some individuals within a population over others. Directional selection: selection that favors an increase or decrease in the value of a trait from the current population average. Stabilizing selection: selection against individuals exhibiting traits that deviate from the current population average All dogs come from the grey wolf, but due to breeding their are many different types of dogs. Male peacocks have the huge feathers to attract their mates. Galapagos finches, based off of Darwin's discoveries with the 13 different finches beaks. Disruptive selection: selection that favors two or more variations of a trait that differ from the current population average. Smaller teeth because humans are eating less coarse food. Forms of Selection Large and very tiny babies have the highest early mortality rate. pesticide resistant bugs These selections are all forms of natural selection. The three main forms are disruptive, stabilizing and directional selection. These two selections have an identical result. Theories of Evolution Punctuated equilibrium: a theory that attributes most evolutionary changes to relatively rapid spurts of change followed by long periods of little or no change. Gradualism: a theory that attributes large evolutionary changes in species to the accumulation of many small and ongoing changes and processes. Hardy Weinberg Principle: in large populations in which only random chance is at work, allele frequencies are expected to remain constant from generation to generation. Theories of Evolution Different theories that try to explain how evolution happened. Evolution Macroevolution: large scale of evolutionary changes including the formation of new species and new taxa Microevolution: changes in gene (allele) frequencies and phenotypic traits within a population and species Divergent Evolution: the large scale evolution of a group into many different forms Convergent Evolution: the evolution of similar traits in distantly related species Coevolution: the process in which one species evolves in response to the evolution of another species Evolution Different types of evolution
and adaptive radiation as it evolves to bring in different species Speciation Sympatric speciation: the evolution of populations within the same geographic area into separate species Allopatric speciation: the formation of a new species as a result of evolutionary changes following a period of geographic isolation Speciation: the formation of a new species Speciation Sympatric and Allopatric speciation are the two types of speciation. A derived trait has evolved recently and changed the specie Changes in population Founders Effect: genetic drift that results when a small number of individuals separate from their original population and establish a new population Genetic Bottleneck: a dramatic, often temporary, reduction in population size, usually resulting in significant genetic drift Genetic Drift: changes in the allele frequency as a result of chance; such changes are much more pronounced in small populations Changes in population Changes in population that result in new or smaller populations from the original population Fossils Transitional form: a fossil or species intermediate in form between two other species in a direct line of descent Fossil form: any ancient remains impression or traces of an organism or traces of its activity that have been preserved in rocks or other mineral deposits in Earth's crust Fossils fossils had a large impact on evolutionary discoveries and how to determine how old the Earth is. Biogeography is based off of living things and fossils. Adaptive Radiation: the relatively rapid evolution of a single species into many species Discovered the Age of the Earth with his ideas about how fossils were formed by extremely slow processes Biogeography: scientific study of the geographic distribution of organisms based on both living species and fossils Derived trait: a trait that has evolved relatively recently with respect or the species or groups Adaptation: Survival of the fittest: a characteristic or feature of a species that makes it well suited for survival or reproductive success in its environment a phrase that has been used to describe the process of natural selection adaptation in species is well suited for survival, natural selection favors individuals who will be reproductively successful. survival of the fittest basically describes
natural selection HMS Beagle for five years, he developed many of his observations and theories on this boat
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