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Learning Disabilities

Special Education - Part 1 Final Assignment

Dustin Garrett

on 22 May 2013

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Transcript of Learning Disabilities

Learning Disabilities by: Dustin, Grace, Jen, Kelly Dyslexia Dyscalculia What is Dyscalculia? How can we help
those with Dyscalculia? Resources for Dyscalculia Self Advocacy: How can we help
those with Dyslexia? Resources regarding Dyslexia What is Dyslexia? How can we help? Impact on Student's
Learning Processes Learning Disabilities (LD) LDs affect the brain's ability to receive, process, and communicate information and knowledge.
A perfect sign that a person has a learning disability is when they have a substantial gap between their level of expected achievement and their actual performance. Comprehension Difficulties across different Subjects
Learned Helplessness
Lack of on-task behavior
Low self-esteem Develop Learning Strategies
Differentiated Instruction
Use of visual cues, anchor charts
Relevant Connections to Material
Smaller Tasks - break down into chunks!
Assistive technology (Dragon, Word Q...)
Explicit instruction
Extra time to complete tasks
Choice of assessment methods
Promote self advocacy!
Dyslexia or reading disability is a learning disability that alters the way the brain processes written material. Students with dyslexia have an impaired reading ability with a competence level below that expected on the basis of the person's level of intelligence. http://www.beatingdyslexia.com/dyslexia-symptoms.html



McGuinness, Diane. Why Our Children Can't Read, and What We Can Do about It: A Scientific Revolution in Reading. New York: Free, 1997.

Borden, Susan L., Lea Lacerenza, and Maureen W. Lovett. "Putting Struggling Readers on the PHAST Track." Journal of Learning Disabilities 33.5 (2000): 458-76.

Hutchinson, Nancy Lynn. Inclusion of Exceptional Learners in Canadian Schools: A Practical Handbook for Teachers. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada, 2010.

Resource Services at Sagonaska. "Provincial School Branch 21st Century Teaching and Learning with Mobile Devices in a Digital World." Letter. N.d. MS. Belleville, Ontario. Giving Students A Voice! A mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts
6% of students have severe difficulties
Developmental Dyscalculia is a diagnosed neurological learning disability (genetic predisposition)
Abnormality in the parietal lobe
Subtypes (4) include: anarithemetria (arithmetical procedures); lexical dyscalculia (math language); practographic dyscalculia (inability to manipulate concrete objects); spatial dyscalculia (difficult with settings, misreading) There is a "Dyscalculia Screener" to help asses and identify individuals. This is a computer-based assessment that delivers instant results and individual intervention and support programs. The formal identification must be completed by a psychologist.

Structured teaching; small tasks; more time for thinking; talk through processes; use of manipulatives; visual aids; assistive technology; basic skill games 1. Ronit Bird - The Dyscalculia Resource Book: Games,
Puzzles, Tips (http://www.ronitbird.com)
2. http://www.dyscalculia.org
3. http://aboutdyscalculia.org/teachers.html
4. http://www.dyscalculia.me.uk/index.html
5. http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/dyscalculia

Useful Software (Google):
Number Race; Numbershark; Flying Carpet; Table Aliens Thank You What is LD? Symptoms of a LD? Students who have difficulty with reading, comprehension, math skills
Hard time transferring skills from setting to setting
Challenge to grasp abstract concepts and open-ended questions
Frequent misreading/misunderstanding
Reluctant to take on tasks
Difficulty with receptive and expressive language
Poor sequencing, discrimination, coordination, organizational and spatial skills
Auditory and/or visual memory problems
Focusing difficulties Symptoms of Dyslexia? Impact on Students with Dyslexia regarding their Learning Processes Comprehension Difficulties
Behavioral Issues
Low sense of self-efficacy
Anxiety Symptoms of Dyscalculia? Difficulty in understanding mathematical symbols
Trouble with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
Weak mental arithmetic skills
Cannot understand abstract concepts, rules, sequences, time, and direction
Poor number sense, ability to deal with money Impact on Students with
Dyscalculia regarding their
Learning Processes Possible Causes of LD? Genetic makeup
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Exposure to environmental toxins
Infections such as meningitis
Premature birth
Acquired Brain Injury Basic Accommodations Presentation:
audio tape; large print; reduce # of items
verbal; tape record response; answers directly in book; use of computer and technology
preferential seating; minimal distractions; small group settings; test in private
frequent break; extra time; prompt task focus Reading Symptoms:
•Difficulty reading unfamiliar words.
•Making lots of errors.
•Slow sound by sound reading.
•Letters appearing to move around or blur on the page.
•Difficulty coordinating eyes (tracking).
•Losing concentration quickly.
•Fixating on parts of the text for longer than average.
Spelling Symptoms:
•Difficulty spelling unfamiliar words.
•Difficulty dividing words into their smallest units of speech sound (phonemes).
•Forgetting how to spell simple or short words.
•Problems distinguishing all 44 phonemes in the English language. Explicit phonemic and phonological awareness teaching (44 sounds, sounds are represented by letter combinations).
Decoding strategies (peeling off prefixes and suffixes, rhyming, sounding out, changing vowel sound)
Develop metacognition skills
Provide time for reading out loud and re-reading of text
Promote self-advocacy!
Promote use of assistive technology
"Chunking" Students become discouraged, overwhelmed, anxious, teased, bullied, humiliated, and often have the inability to function in daily life.
Students may need modified work as they will need to work with basic principles as complex ideas can be too overwhelming
The Student may need lots of repetition and "chunking"
The student may feel: discouraged; fatigued; overwhelmed; anxious
The students maybe teased, bullied, humiliated
Have you ever wonder what it is like to have a learning disability? Sometimes it helps people to understand if they think about it in terms of an analogy. I think having a learning disability (L.D.) is like being a turtle who is turned over on its shell. I chose this image because when a turtle is turned over on its shell it can not flip its self over again with out help. This shows what it is like to have an L.D. because the flipped turtle represents the L.D. and the help to turn its self over represents the strategies a person with an L.D. would use to succeed. A example of a strategy I use to succeed is more time, which helps me complete all of my assignments. Another example is technology like Dragon Dictate, which helps me with spelling hard words and it helps me with getting my good ideas down on the paper. A strategy I use all the time is sounding out words, this helps me with figuring out what words say when I am reading and this helps me with spelling words when j am writing. So being a turtle who has turned over on its shell, is what having an L.D. is like for me.I! think this is a successful analogy because it is easier to imagine a turtle who can't flip it's self over again then being a person who has anL.D. because you might not understand how frustrating having an L.D. can be sometimes. Analogy of a Learning Disability
My Turtle
L.D) is like paling Hockey and not getting goals,but the goals that you get is the help you need. I chose this image because in a game you can get lost of opportune to get a goal, the goals are like the strategies you can use like technology ,using Dragon Dictate and Word Q, rhyming, sounding out, asking for more time, Peel off prefixes and suffixes and change the vowel sound. So there are lost of strategies you can use so I would. Reaching Your Goals
From my perspective having a learning disability is similar to a bookshelf that is stacked with books. The books on the bottom shelf represent the reading level the person is struggling with. The bottom shelf has a few books that are easy books and a lot of empty space. On the next shelf books are more challenging. The shelves of the bookcase represent the strategies that the person learned for reading. Since the person learned those strategies they can read harder books. The more strategies the more difficult books that the person with the L.D can read better. Finally, learning more strategies helps them to the top shelf where there is no empty space and all the books are tricky. On the very top of the bookshelf there is a light that represents the person with the learning disability succeeding at meeting their goals. I chose this image because it shows how the person with LD can learn strategies to help them succeed. Learning Disability Bookshelf
I think having learning disabilities, (LD)is like being a baby bird who cannot fly. I chose this image because it makes me think that learning is like the bird who can’t fIy yet. The person with LD and the bird both have to learn and try their best, then they will get it sometimes and be able to fly. The person with LD can learn to use computers, get help from teachers and use strategies to succeed. I use Word Q, it helps me write words down by reading them to me so I can pick the one I want to use. I also use sounding out, it helps me put spaces between sounds in words and stretch them out to figure out what a word is. Another tool I use is Kurzweil. It reads to me.
Using strategies is like the bird learning to fly. Step by step by following its mom and dad that's how the bird succeeds I would tell kids with LD to spread their wings and try new things. Learning to Fly Having a learning disability (L.D.) is like having to get somewhere fast but you run into a huge boulder in the middle of the road. If you do not kow how to get around the huge boulder you will be stuck. So you have to come up with a bridge of strategies to get to the destination. But on the other side of the road there is a car that can zoom straight through because they have not evan a barrier stoping them. The strategies I know are assistive technology, I know my allies and finally, I work hard, always give 100%.
I chose this visual image because it shows that you should always use advocacy when you are stuck. It is up to you to be responsible. The rock represents L.D. And the bridge represents the way to success. In the end both cars will be at the same destination. It will just take longer for the car with the boulder in the middle of the road to get to the same destination.
Just remember you will get there.  A Bridge of Strategies
For those that have (L.D.) this is a trmendice story about having (L.D.). I think having a learning disability (L.D.) is like being a professional hockey player and most of the year trying to learn all the skills. For example there practicing there shots or skating drills or any other drills or shooting on the Goalie or many more drills. I chose this visual image for (L.D) because when a hockey player starts playing the player has to do lots of practicing before he can play hockey and score goals. The drills are like the strategies that we use in class for example Dragon dictate or work Q also make sure I am on the right track while I am reading or any other strategies that we use in class. This shows what (L.D.) is like. The hockey player represents the person that has the (L.D.) and he has too work hard to score the goal of knowledge. Everyone else in my class or team can score the goal of knowledge but I can’t. Having (L.D.) is like being that hockey player that can not score in when he the player does he will score the goal of knowledge that is what (L.D.) is like to me. The Goal of Knowledge
Students living with a Learning Disability Self Advocacy I think one way to describe having LD is to imagine having three diamonds. Two of them are fake, and one of them is real. You have to have special equipment and special goggles to tell which diamond is real. I chose this image because I think the goggles are the help and the fake diamonds are the ld! You can get help from Dragon the on line program that what you say to Dragon it rights on the screen and you can also get help from work Q will guess what you are typing so if you don’t know how to spell something you guess and word Q will give you options on what you spell and they is Kurzweil a program that will read books and assignments to you. If you get the help you need you can learn to read.

So don’t make fun of people with ld because it is hard to have ld. What LD Is Like For Me Would you like to know what having a learning disability is like for me? For me having a learning disability is like being a fish out of water. So the fish is the l.d. And water is the strategies it needs to survive. With out water the fish is not going to have very good luck. Without strategies the person with LD will not learn as fast as other kids and it will be hard to learn and succeed at school. Strategies the fish can use to get back in the water are Dragon, Word Q, extra time and patience. Dragon is computer program that lets me talk into a mic and the words I say appear on the computer screen. Word Q makes writing better because the words you need appear on your screen and you click the word you want and it shows up in your sentence, instead of you misspelling the word. Extra time and patience are important. If the teacher is going to fast you can put up your hand and say, “can you please slow down? I have not caught up yet.”
I chose this image because the fish has to find a way to get back in the water to succeed. The image shows people what a learning disability is like. Please who have a learning disability use special things to succeed with their work. A Fish Out Of Water.....
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