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Presentación para la defensa de mi tesis doctoral
Transcript of Presentación para la defensa de mi tesis doctoral
Widespread pigment in animals (McGraw 2006)
Sex determination in barn swallows
by means of discriminant analysis in two european populations
House martins with haemosporidian infections show lower rectrix growth rate, arrive later to the breeding quarters, have smaller clutch size and rear less chicks than non-infected ones.
To study the effect of avian malaria infection on feather growth rate in house martins while moulting.
Melanin-based coloration as a reliable indicator of reproductive success and survival in barn swallows (
Main subjects of study in Ecology
Traits associated with variation in fecundity and survival
Maximizing individual fitness
Shaped by natural selection
Sexing barn swallows
Feathers and life-history traits
For experts and inexperienced researchers
Model species in many studies
Methodology in the field
Fast, accurate and inexpensive
Parasitism enter in conflict with moulting, especially in migratory birds
Feather coloration major role in sexual selection
Link between melanin coloration and fitness?
Feathers need molting to renew
External factors can affect sperm performance and therefore sperm competition
Competitive process between spermatozoa from different individuals
Postcopulatory selection can shape and drive species evolution
Intraspecific variation in spermatozoa morphology covaries with sperm competition risk
Effects of radioactivity in wild populations is still controversial
Radioactivity have risen as an important factor (Chernobyl, Fukushima...)
To investigate the nature of these aberrant forms by using Scanning Electron Microscopy.
To assess the effect of radioactivity on patterns of sperm damage in different species of Ukrainian passerines.
To analyze geographic differences in sperm morphology and sperm competition in different populations of a widespread migratory bird.
To find out an accurate, fast and inexpensive methodology to sex barn swallows in the field.
To investigate the relationship between melanin-based coloration and fitness and survival in the European barn swallow.
To evaluate the possible costs and the hypothetical carry-over effects of delayed moult in the next breeding season.
There are major morphological differences between male and female barn swallows and these differences can be assessed by means of Discriminant Analysis Functions, even for distant populations.
The intensity of black coloration of the dorsal feathers in barn swallows was related to survival and reproductive success in females, but not in males.
Darker female barn swallows survive better to the next year, begin laying eggs earlier and raise more fledglings than paler females.
Darker individuals of both sexes in barn swallows arrive earlier to their breeding grounds than paler ones.
Validation with external populations
Badajoz (Spain) 1976-2006 and Kraghede (Denmark) 1984-2006
Discriminant function analysis
Genetic sexing (Griffiths et al. 1998)
Behavior, breeding patch
Sexed by observer (Deslestrade 2001)
816 Spanish swallows and 2115 Danish swallows
Culmen, tarsus, keel, mass, wing, wingspan, length of the outermost tail feathers, and length of the inner tail feathers.
MANOVA to evaluate differences between sex and populations
Multivariate analysis (Figuerola et al. 2006)
Broadly used in some species
Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) for each population
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Narrow range of discriminant scores to rise accuracy
Working for distant populations
Pleiotropy (MCR's) (Ducrest et al. 2008)
Barn swallows (flight displays)
MBC Vs. Survival, Fitness and Condition
Discussed role of melanins (Griffith et al. 2006)
Antioxidant, camouflage, resistance...
Survival, breeding success, behavior...
Badajoz (Spain) 2000-2007
585 barn swallows
Conversion to tetrahedral color space (Stoddar & Prum 2008)
Scaled mass index (Peig & Green 2009)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Darker males develop shorter tails (trade-off)
Survived more than brownish ones.
MBC is independent of body condition
Indirectly relation (pleiotropy)
Raised more fledglings
Started laying earlier
GLMM's for survival, body condition, tail length (males), arrival date, laying date (females) and breeding success
Sex and age
Cross random effects (year, ID, nest)
All models standardized
Migration to adapt to seasonal changes (Gauthreaux ,1982)
Malaria infection and feather growth rate predict reproductive success in house martins
Carry-over effects to the next season (Harrison et al. 2011)
Feathers needs renewal → Moult
Avoid overlapping with other activities (de la Hera et al. 2009)
Parasites affect moult patterns (Langston & Hillgarth 1995; Tarello 2007)
Malaria Vs Feather growth?
Carry-over effects (growth rate and infection)
Badajoz 2000-2010 (444 individuals)
Data from first clutches (Christie et al. 2001, 2002)
Tracking reproductive events
Weight and blood samples
Blood cells stored in 96% ethanol
Parasites detected by nested-PCR (negative and positive controls)
Concordance correlation coefficient
GLM for the effects on rectrix growth rate, laying date, clutch size and fledglings
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Concordant measurements (qc > 0.95)
No differences in haematrocrit (F1, 443=0.03, P=0.85) or chewing lice (F1, 443=1.97,P=0.16)
First association between malaria parasites and feather growth
Non-infected individual started clutch earlier, laid bigger clutches, fledged more nestlings and had higher reproductive success (nestlings/eggs)
65% infected: smaller rectrix (F1, 443 =15.20, P<0.001), lower growth speed (F1, 443=13.94, P<0.001), and lower body mass (F1, 443=9.95, P=0.002)
Variation patterns are complex and not clear (Birkhead et al. 2009)
Intraspecific variation and competition risk (Lifjeld et al. 2010)
All measurements by the same person
Extrapaternity from literature
Variation among populations
Sperm size Vs competition risk
CVbm adjusted sample size (Sokal and Rohlf 1995)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
First study examining sperm size Vs. extrapair paternity in populations
Negative relationship CVbm and EPB (CVbm / EPY negative but not significant)
Head, midpiece and total length differed:
F6, 183= 17.4, P<0.001
F6, 183= 15.9, P<0.001
F6, 183= 10.3, P<0.001
Sperm as indicator of genetic distance
Nutrients consumed by parasites
Trade-offs between immune response and moult
Support to sperm competition induce stabilizing selection
Patterns of sperm damage in Chernobyl passerine birds suggest a trade-off between sperm length and integrity
High interespecific variation in sperm size in passerines (Jamieson 2006)
Longer sperm (Lifjeld 2010)
Cloacal massage => 5% formaldehyde
PGLS for comparative analysis
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Frequency of abnormalities in Chernobyl: 15.7 - 73,3 (39.6%)
Frequency of abnormalities in control areas: 0.1 - 21.1 (8.6%)
SEM pictures: premature acrosome reaction
3 patterns of sperm damage:
Radiation-induced damage (25 years)
Premature acrosome reaction (oxidative stress?)
Longer sperm => lower structural integrity
Ptilochronology (growth bars)
Variation in sperm morphometry and sperm competition among barn swallow (
Migration when moult is complete: low rectrix growth → delayed arrival
Declining reproductive success across breeding season (Verlhust et al. 1995)
Immune response costly for house martins (Marzal et al. 2005).
Rectrix growth rate and breeding success varied across years
Anual variation in ecological factors
Low feather growth associated with delayed laying date
GRACIAS POR SU ATENCION
¡Y gracias a todos los que contribuyeron de algun modo en la realizacion de esta tesis!
Further studies needed
Better sperm quality (Rowe M, Pruett-Jones 2011)
Fitness benefits in females but not in males.
Better condition of feathers
↑↑ Melanin → ↑↑Feather resistance → ↑↑Fitness
Darker individuals arrived earlier
ANOVA for differences infected/uninfected (feather length, growth bars, breeding success, mass, haematocrit and ectoparasites)
Model selection by Information Theory approach
Hermosell IG, J Balbontín, A Marzal, M Reviriego & F de Lope (2007) Ardeola 54 (1): 93–100
Marzal A, M Reviriego, IG Hermosell, J Balbontin, S Bensch, C Relinque, L Rodriguez, L Garcia-Longoria, F de Lope (2013) Oecologia 171 (4): 853–61
Laskemoen T, T Albrecht, A Bonisoli-Alquati, J Cepak, F de Lope, IG Hermosell, LE Johannessen, O Kleven, A Marzal, TA Mousseau, AP Møller, RJ Robertson, G Rudolfsen, N Saino, Y Vortman, JT Lifjeld (2013) Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67 (2): 301–9
Hermosell, IG, T Laskemoen, M Rowe, AP Møller, TA Mousseau, T Albrecht & JT Lifjeld (2013)
Biology Letters 9 (5): 20130530.
10 sperms in each individual (Laskemoen et al. 2007)
Two cameras on two microscopes (200x)
Cloacal massage and fixed in 5% formalin
7 populations (3 subspecies)
Males (D>0) and females (D<0)
Estimate: -4.60 SE: 1.91 CI: (-8.34, -0.84)
Estimate: 1.36 SE: 0.56 CI: (0.40, 2.40)
Pearson's: r=−0.96, P<0.003
Pearson's: r=−0.62, P=0.19
r=0.629, p=0.051, n =10
r=0.928, p<0.001, n =9
-0,300 < D < 0.300
-0,450 < D < 0.450
84 birds from 10 sp (control) (2007/13)
102 birds from 11 sp in Chernobyl (2010/11)
CVbm -> competition risk (Lifjedl et al. 2010)
SEM pics from 3 species
(PGLS, t = 2.77, n = 9 p=0.028)
Comparative study of sperm abnormalities, length and sperm competition risk
Sperm competition risk
Mean length from Oslo Museum
Individuals sexed by behaviour and breeding patch
Species with longer sperm have lower structural integrity of the acrosome and present more damaged sperm.
All studied species of passerines in Chernobyl show higher frequencies of sperm abnormalities than in control populations and they are like due to premature acrosome reaction.
The inter-male variation in sperm morphometry is related to extra-paternity levels among the populations of barn swallows, same as across species.
Variation in sperm size and morphometry among European and East-Mediterranean populations is small, meanwhile this variation is somewhat larger between those populations and the North-America population.