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Views of the Earth
Transcript of Views of the Earth
Landforms, Viewpoints and Maps
The Earth's physical representation on paper.
Read chapter 6.
Complete pages: 159: 1-2, pg. 163: 1-3, pg. 170: 1-3, pgs. 176-177: 1-15, 16, 18, 22.
"Some of Earth's most stunning features are its landforms..."(Pg. 154).
Plains: large, flat areas, often found in the interior regions of continents. Plains often have thick, fertile soils, and abundant grassy meadows.
Interior plains: Usually are large areas that are flat, with few trees. Some are found at higher elevations than you would find coastal plains.
Coastal plains: are different from interior plains. Usually has low, rolling hills, swamps and marshes.
Mountains: many forces cause mountains! There are four different kinds to know: folded mountains, upwarped mountains, fault-block mountains, and volcanic mountains.
Folded Mountains: these mountains happen when severe forces push against each other. Rock layers end up folded like a rug that's been pushed against a wall.
Upwarped mountains: form when blocks of Earth's crust are pushed up from below.
Fault-Blocked mountains: are made of huge tilted blocks of rocks that are separated by other rocks by faults.
Volcanic mountains: form when molten material reaches the surface through a weak spot in the Earth's crust.
How to look at the Earth
In order to understand where we are on our Earth, we created imaginary lines called latitude and longitude to help understand how to get to and from different places.
Latitude: the equator is an imaginary line around the Earth halfway between the North and South pole. Latitude lines run horizontal to the Earth, north and south of the equator.
Longitude: are the lines that run perpendicular to latitude lines.
Unlike the equator which runs all the way around the globe, the starting point of longitude lines is called the prime meridian, which runs through Greenwich, England. However, this line doesn't encircle the entire globe.
Plateaus: are flat, raised areas of land made up of nearly horizontal rocks that have been uplifted. These are different than plains because they have steep, edges that rise suddenly from the surrounding environment.
Time zones: Earth is divided into 24 time zones. The US has 6 different time zones.
International date line: you gain or lose time when you enter a new time zone... but there's one line you can cross and you can gain or loose a whole day.
Maps and all Their Flaws
Maps don't actually show us the world as it actually is, we try to represent what it looks like as accurately as possible, but it's really hard to put a sphere onto a flat piece of paper without there being any flaws. We use different types of projections to best represent our home.
Mercator: mainly used on ships, this projection shows the correct shapes of continents, but the size of the continents are distorted. (Greenland appears larger than South America).
Robinson: Shows continent shapes accurately, and more accurately on land areas.
Conic: these are road maps or weather maps. These are used for small areas, not large representations of areas. These also work better further away from the poles and closer to the equator. These are made by projecting points and lines form a globe onto a cone.
Maps and all Their Differences
We use maps for a whole bunch of different things:
To navigate, to go anywhere. (Land or sea)
To see how lands look different. (Physical)
To see how lands change in elevation. (Topographical).
Topographic Maps: models the change in the surface of the Earth, by using contour lines. A contour line is a line on a map that connects points of equal elevation.
An index contour is a contour line that's marked with it's elevation.
Details about Maps
Map Scale: the relationship between the distances on the map and distances on Earth's surface.
Map legend: explains what the symbols used on the map means.
Geologic maps: maps the different kinds of rocks in a certain area.
Remote Sensing: the use of satellites to get a clear image of an area. GPS: Global Positioning System is an example.