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Transcript of The Crusades
First Crusade! 1096-1099
(June 7, 1099) First Crusade reaches The Holy Land
Crusaders marched barefooted around the City 3 times before invading it.
Broke through the walls within 2 days.
Killed 40,000 Muslims.
THE CHRISTIANS HAVE FULL CONTROL.
THE MOST SUCCESSFUL CRUSADE!
Senior Independent Research Study
What is the Crusades?
Series of NINE Holy Wars between the Christians and the Muslims .
lasted for around 200 years (1095- 1291).
Purpose: Christians Wanted to Win Jerusalem back .
French: "Croissade "- War of the Cross.
August 15 , 1096- Pope Urban II called for a Crusade "It is God's will ".
Monk Leader Peter the Hermit road into town .with a cross and preached to the people
300,000 peasants with no weapons or experience left for Jerusalem .
Destroying Jewish Villages along the Way
By the time the time they reached Constantinople -100,000 dead from disease, starvation and attacks.
The Eastern Emperor Alexius I told the"Peoples Crusade" to fight in Asia Minor against the Turks.
The Turks Slaughtered the army!
The next Army
New LEADERS lead Pope Urban's next army through Constantinople, into Turkish Territory.
Fought off ambushing Saracens (Turkish Muslims).
Pushed on until reaching Jerusalem.
THE SECOND CRUSADE! (1145-1149)
The country of Edessa was taken over by Muslims so Pope Eugene III of Italy called upon a Crusade to recapture it.
Since most knights had died since the first war Eugene wanted to provide reinforcements for Jerusalem.
King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany.
Choose to fight against the Muslims.
Both armies fell in Anatolia (Turkey).
Crusaders attack Damascus (Capital of Syria) 1147
2nd Crusade was a loss
The Germans went back to Germany.
What was left of the French army tried to take over the city of Damascus.
Failed and returned home.
New leader of Egypt, Saladin, unites Syria with Egypt and attacks Christian forces defeating them in Battle of Hattin .
Saladin was able to invade and take control over Jerusalem.
Fredrick's Army Crossed Asia Minor
Fredrick's Army consisted of 15,000 men.
Battled in Iconium (Southern Turkey) and WON
While crossing Saleph River, Fredrick is thrown from his horse into the river and drowned.
Most the army went home except the few that were led by his son.
Son died of a fever not long after.
Siege of Acre 1189
King Richard and Philip gathered money and men and headed to the city of Acre .
Surrounded it for a year stopping supplies into the city.
Acre surrendered to the Christians .
Left and took sail for the Holy Land.
The Third Crusade 1187-1192
Call for help after Hattin: King Richard (The Lionheart) of England, King Phillip II of France and King Fredrick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire join together .
Saladin takes on the christians .
First to set off is King Fredrick Barbarossa.
Jerusalem was left too weak .
King Phillip and Richard got into a fight, King Phillip withdrew his army.
Richard' moved on to attack the closes port to Jerusalem.
Saladin sent his army after them and suffered heavy loss an retreated
King Richard took on Jerusalem
Crusade Wasn't a Success
King Richard attacked winning and losing some battles
After all efforts to take control Saladin and Richard made a Treaty for Jerusalem to stay under Muslim control and allow unarmed Christians into the city to pray.
Third Crusade comes to an end and Richard returns home.
The last Crusades
Fourth Crusade: 1201-1204
Fifth Crusade: 1218-1221
Sixth Crusade: 1228- 1229
Seventh Crusade: 1248-1254
Eighth Crusade: 1270
Pope Innocent III plans to attack Egypt
Makes a deal with Venice to take over Christian city Zara for ships to cross the Mediterranean .
Destroy Zara, murdered most the Christians. inhabiting, and destroyed everything Historical and valuable.
Didn't reach the Holy Land.
Pope Innocent III called another Crusade.
Multiple leaders joined their armies together and attacked everything along the Nile River in Egypt.
Christians had the upper hand following the dried up Nile to Damietta .
Christians planned an attack, then the Nile flooded causing a retreat.
Egyptians attacked while Christians were in retreat.
King Fredrick II felt bad for the losing Christians .
Gathered an army and set sail to the Holy land.
Once there he entered Jerusalem and took control.
Seventh, Eight, Ninth Crusade
7th: Jerusalem is taken by Khwarezmian from Central Asia.
8th: The King of France called a Crusade but died in Africa from bad drinking water.
9th: Prince Edward tried to recover Jerusalem and lost.
Christians gave up finally .