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Evaluation of Media and Persuasion
Transcript of Evaluation of Media and Persuasion
2. Examine the information and the persuasive techniques used in order to decide if the information makes sense and is unbiased. Vocabulary First, let’s clarify exactly what I mean when I use the following terms: Learning Goals Media (plural noun) Media are “the means of communication” and can refer to any way in which we communicate. This includes books, newspapers, magazines, television, radio, movies, websites, blogs, articles, videos, advertisements and any other way that people try to “reach or influence” others (dictionary.com). http://www.trendhunter.com/about-trend-hunter http://socialmediainbusiness.com/social-media-applications-guide Persuasion We use persuasion to try to convince someone about something.
When we look at or listen to media, we are often being persuaded to think something, do something, or buy something. http://www.marketlikeachick.com/5-tips-on-how-to-market-yourself-as-your-main-product/ http://www.pkmeco.com/familyblog/2007_04_01_archive.html http://myglobalkindness.org/donations/ Persuasive Techniques “These ‘persuaders’ use a variety of techniques to grab our attention, to establish credibility and trust, to stimulate desire for the product or policy, and to motivate us to act (buy, vote, give money, etc.)” (Media Literacy Project).
If we can learn to identify these techniques, then we are in a much better position to decide if the information being presented is believable and unbiased. http://www.westernreservepublicmedia.org/changemymind/index.htm http://lumiereministries.wordpress.com/2008/09/25/media-bias-media-only-reports-only-what-it-wishes/ Bias Bias is the attempt to unfairly present information in a way that makes it look better than it really is.
The intention of bias is to influence us to agree with the message being shown. Credible If something is credible, then it is reasonable to believe it.
It makes enough sense or has enough evidence to convince us it is true. http://www.examiner.com/article/workplace-conflicts-when-how-to-tell-the-truth Tools and Techniques of Persuasion These are as old as time and have been used by orators, writers and poets down the centuries. The ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle, categorized three types of persuasive appeals:
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. http://www.leaderthoughtship.com/2012/12/using-ethos-pathos-and-logos-for.html Ethos Pathos Logos This is the credibility or ethics of the person behind the message.
We are likely to believe someone we trust or someone who is an expert on a subject.
A man in a white coat with a stethoscope around his neck looks like a medical doctor. http://cast.thirdage.com/files/styles/slideshow/public/originals/Doctor%20with%20Pills.jpg If he is holding a medication and telling us it will help us, we may believe him.
We have no clue if he is a doctor, but he looks the part. If the brand or company names mean nothing or little to us, then there are a variety of techniques that modern advertisers use to improve their credibility.
These often include using celebrity endorsement by pop stars, beauty queens, movie stars, or sporting legends. Love him or hate him!
He still sells millions of bottles! http://www.fanpop.com/clubs/justin-bieber-someday/images/24821644/title/justin-bieber-someday-perfume-photo The opposite of famous people is the idea of using “plain folks” who we can trust because they are ordinary people just like us. http://babystepz.com/hard-but-worth-it-a-dose-of-reality-for-new-and-prospective-mothers/ http://www.supportunicef.org/site/c.dvKUI9OWInJ6H/b.7677883/k.2C8F/Donate_now.htm This is the emotional appeal of the message.
If the message can make an emotional connection with us, then the advertisers have established a powerful tool to persuade us.
The cute kitties or the hungry kids are hard to resist and lower our defenses to the message.
We become more receptive when our emotions are involved and more open to being persuaded. http://www.adoptapet.com/pet/7220988-delaware-ohio-cat Our sense of reason responds to logos or logical appeals.
Here we are given the facts and statistics that support the claims being made.
There are often charts and graphs or reference to market surveys or clinical trials to support the appeal. http://thebrandmaker.blogspot.com/ http://masalai.wordpress.com/2011/08/14/how-to-get-accurate-statistics-on-the-png-population/ http://jmandresen.blogspot.com/2010/05/logical-appeal-of-vegetarianism.html Now that we know what media are and how they may be used to persuade us, let's look at some examples. I've stuck to adverts as time is limited, but this method can be used with many types of media.
Essentially, we need to ask ourselves a series of questions to determine the advert's validity and credibility. Evaluating Media Questions Does this advert try to sell us something, tell us something or want us to do something?
Who will benefit or make money?
Who is the advert trying to reach?
How does this advert attract our attention?
Which persuasive techniques does this advert use?
Is there any bias in this advert?
Is this advert believable?
Do you agree with the message? Let's look at examples. This ad is trying to sell us something. Donna Karan New York will make money. This ad is trying to reach women who want to increase their sex appeal. This ad attracts our attention with the gaze of the sultry female model. Many women will recognize the DKNY brand and/or the model and respond to the ethical appeal.
There is also a strong emotional appeal to "be delicious" and have a gorgeous partner drooling over us. Yes, there is bias. Even if you buy and wear the perfume, odds are you won't look like this highly-paid model. I don't find this ad believable. No, I don't agree with the message that a woman needs this perfume to be appealing. http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/print/2010/5/bangalore_blood_phone_3.jpg http://models.com/work/dkny-dkny-be-delicious-fragrance-contract-2012-fw-12 This ad is trying to tell us something. Distracted drivers will benefit. This ad is trying to reach people who talk to drivers. The blood attracts our attention. There is a powerful emotional appeal with the horror on the woman's face and blood spurting out the phone.
This is followed up with a strong logical appeal to not distract drivers. Yes, there is bias because not everyone who distracts a driver will cause death or serious injury.
However, it seems like a well-intentioned kind of bias because thousands of accidents happen for this very reason.
I know blood cannot spurt out a phone but the underlying message is still believable.
I agree with this message. Your turn to analyze There are 4 short videos posted below. Try watching a couple and using the "Evaluating Media: Beginning Questions"
list of questions to guide you.
The list is posted next for easy reference.
Choose any 2 videos and answer the questions just as I did with the ads. As always, email me with any questions or post on Edmodo. Either your classmates or I will respond.
Comments and suggestions on this media unit are welcome. Please complete the poll on Edmodo to let me know how I am doing.
I have posted a list of references for those of you who wish to learn more. Works Cited
Dlugan, Andrew. "Ethos, Pathos, Logos: 3 Pillars of Public Speaking." Six Minutes: Public Speaking and Presentation Skills Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. <http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/ethos-pathos-logos/>.
"Interview: 5 Best Practices on Using Expert Endorsements & Testimonials | MarketingSherpa." Marketing Research: Articles, Reports and Case Studies | MarketingSherpa. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. <http://www.marketingsherpa.com/article/how-to/5-best-practices-on-using>.
"Language of Persuasion | Media Literacy Project." Media Literacy Project | Celebrating 20 Years of Media Literacy. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2013. <http://medialiteracyproject.org/language-persuasion>. References/Further Reading