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Transcript of British History
The Roman period (43-410)
the Roman province Britannia covered most of England and Wales, where the Romans imposed their own way of life and culture.
A Celtic tribe called Scots migrated from Ireland to Scotland where, along with another tribe, the Picts, they became opponents with the Romans.
The Germanic invation
During the fifth century, a number of tribes from the European mainland invaded and settled in.
The Angles and the Saxons.
This anglo-saxons soon had the south-east of the country in their grasp.
In the west their advance was temporarily halted by an army of Celtics under the command of the legendary king Arthur. but at the end of the sixth century they and their way of life predominated in nearly all of present-day England.
By the end of the tenth century England was a United Kingdom with a Germanic culture. Most Scotland was also united, at least in name, in Gaelic Kingdom.
Two thousands years ago there was an Iron age, a Celtic culture.
Celts had melted with other people that were there already.
Religious sites built long before their arrival, were still used in Celtic times.
Silbury Hill: the largest burial mound in Europe
Prehistory = -mystery
Britons: the ones who experienced Roman Rule (in England and Wales)
Gaels: those who did not experienced Roman Rule (Ireland and Scotland)
The remarcable thing about the Romans:
They didn't left much behind in Britain.
The only lasting remainders of their presence are places names like: Chester, Lancaster and Gloucester (variants of the Latin word "castra" a military camp)
The Roman general Julius Caesar Land in Britain with an expeditionary force, wins battle and leaves.
The Romans come to stay
Queen Boudicca 61
Of the Iceni tribe leads a bloody revolt against Romans. It is suppressed.
There is a statue of Boudicca made in the nineteenth century outside the houses of parliament. To keep her memory alive.
In folklore and myth, he is a great English hero and he and his knights of the round table are regarded as the perfect example of medieval nobility.
In fact, he lived long before medieval times and was a Romanized Celt, trying to hold back the advances of the Anglo-Saxons
They had great effect on the countryside. They introduced new farming methods and founded a thousand of self-sufficient villages
When they came to Britain they were Pagan. during the sixth and the seventeenth century Christianity spread throughout
Norsemen or Danes came from Scandinavia.
In the nineteenth century they conquered and settled the islands of Scotland and some coastal regions of Ireland. Their Conquest of England was halted when they were defeated by King Alfred of the Saxon Kingdom of Wessex.
Built in Sailsbury Plain between 5.000 and 4.500 years ago
One of the most famous and mysterious archiological sites in the world.
One of the mysterys is how it was made
and the other is the purpous. It appears to function as an astronomical clock. It was used by the druids for ceremonies.
The Medieval Period (1066-1458)
The successfull Normal invation of England (1066) brought Britain into the mainstream of western European culture.
Throughout this period, the English kings also owned lands and were often at war with French kings.
The Norman invation was small-scale. the norman soldiers were given the ownership of land and the people living on it.
A strict feudal system was imposed. This was the start of the English class system.
The Anglo-Norman was the most powerfull political force in Britain and Ireland.
By the end of the thirteenth century, a large part of eastern Ireland was controlled by anglo-Norman lords.
Scotland managed to stay politically independent in the medieval period.
The Germanic language became dominant in all clases of society in England.
The Anglo-Saxons concept of common law formed the basis of the legal system.
It was in this period that parliament began its gradual evolution into the democratic body which it is today
The Battle of Hastings
On the 14 of October 1066, an invading army from Normandy defeated the English.
The battle was close and extremely bloody.
At the end, most of the best worriors in England were dead including the leader King Harold.
Duke William of Normandy was crowned King of England. He is known as: Willam the conqueror.
Legendary folk hero.
Richard I spent most of his reign fighting in the Crusades. Meanwhile England was governed by his brother John, who was unpopular for all the taxes he imposed. Acording to legend Robin Hood lived with his band in the Sherwood forest, outside Nottingham, stealing from the rich and giving to the poor. He was constantly hunted by the local sherif but never captured.
After several years of war between Scottish and English Kingdoms, Scotland is recognized as an independent kingdom.
An alliance of aristocracy, church and merchants force king John to agree to the Magna Carta, a document in which the king agrees to follow certain rules of government. In fact neither John or his successor entirely followed them, but the Magna Carta is remembered as the first time the monarch agreed in writing to abide by formal procedures.
The sixteenth century
The Wars of the Roses
The nobles were divided into two groups:
-One supporting the House of Lancaster, whose symbol was a red rose.
-the other supporting the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
Three decades of almost continual war ended 1485 when Henry Tudor (landcastrian) defeated and killed Richard III (yorkist) at the battle of Bosworth field.
The Tudor dynasty (1485-1603)
Established a system of government departments staffed by professionals who depended for their position in the monarch.
From the two "houses" of parliament, the lords and the commons it was more important for monarchs to get the agreement of the commons.
Protestantism: the king Henry VIII made himself head of the church of England.
One of the most well-known monarchs in English History. chiefly because he took six wives during his life.
He was a natural leader but no very interested in the day-to-day running of government and this encouraged the beginnings of a professional bureaucracy.
Henry used parliament to pass laws which swept away the power of the Roman church in England. However his quarrel was because he wanted to be free to marry again.
Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII, was the first of the three long-reigning queens in British history.
During her reign she established a reasonable degree of internal stability in a firmly protestant England, allowing the growth of a spirit patriotism and general confidence.
she never married. She became known as: the virgin queen. The area which later became the state of Virginia in USA, named after her by one explorer of the time (sir. Walter Raleigh)
The seventeenth century
The Civil War begins
It ended with the victory for the parliament forces. James's son, Charles I, became the first monarch in Europe to be executed for crimes against his people.
The leader of the parliament army, Oliver Cromwell, became "lord protector".
When Cromwell died, his system of government and the puritan ethics had become so unpopular that the executed king's son was asked to return and become king Charles II
When James I became the first English king of the Stuart dynasty, he was already James VI of Scotland so that the crowns of these two countries were united.
The link between religion and politics became intense. At the start of the century some people tried to kill the king because he wasn't catholic enough. By the end of the century another king had been killed because he was too catholic.
Parliament established its supremacy over the monarchy.
The conflict between monarch and parliament re-emerged with James II. He tried to give full rights to Catholics and to promote them in his government.
Charles I is executed. For the first and only time, Britain becomes a republic and is called "The commonwealth"
Restoration of the monarchy and the Anglican religion.
The great fire in London. 1666
The fire destroys most of the city's old wooden buildings. It also destroyed the bubonic plague, which never reappears. Most od the city's finest churches, date from the period of rebuilding which followed.
The Glorious Revolution. 1688
Prince William of Orange and his Stuart wife Mary accepted parliament's invitation to become king and queen. Parliament drew up the Bill of Rights, which limited the monarch's power.
The Eighteenth century
In 1707, the Act of Union was passed. Under this agreement, the Scottish parliament was dissolved and some of its members joined the English and Welsh parliament in London and the former two kingdoms became one "United Kingdom of Great Britain".
Scotland retained its own system of law.
Politically, it was stable. Monarch and parliament go on well together.
The parliament was divided into two groups. The whigs and the tories. This was the beginning of the party system in Britain.
It was cultural change that was most marked in this century. Britain acquired an empire in the Americas, along the west African coast and India. this allowed trade, factor that led to the Industrial Revolution.
The Nineteenth Century
Britain lost its most important colonies (North American ones) in a war of independence.
Soon after the end of the century, it controlled the biggest empire the world have ever seen.
One section was Ireland, another part of the empire was made up of Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Another was India, also large parts of Africa. And numerous small areas and islands like those in the caribbean.
The growth of the empire was encourage by a change in attitude during the century.
There were big changes is social structures. Slavery was abolished.
Great Britain declares war to Germany. Until the 1940s, the First World War was known in Britain as The Great War.
The Twentieth Century
The first twenty years of this century were a period of extremism in Britain. But by the 1920's, these issues had been resolved and the climate of extremism died out.
the British empire reached its greatest extent in 1919. A couple of years later, Britain lost most of its oldest colony ( the creation of Northern Ireland)
A real dismantling of the empire took place in the 25 years that followed the Second World War.
The urban working class began to make its voice heard.
Parliament: The whigs-> The Labour Party and The Tories-> The conservatives.
Coronation of Elizabeth II
Britain joins the European Economic Community
the Falklands, Malvinas War